Today, CBD as a nutraceutical may be beneficial for your dog’s upset stomach from diarrhea, vomiting, and constipation. If you’re noticing that your furry best friend is having a slew of belly aches and digestive problems, it may be time to give him CBD. CBD, or cannabidiol, can help relieve your dog of digestive issues, such as nausea, vomiting, and pain, naturally and effectively. Before you decide to give your dog CBD oil you need to know the risks attached to it. We’ve explained 10 potential side effects…
CBD For Your Dog’s Upset Stomach
Digestive issues can affect your furry best friend at any time. Your dog may have issues with abdominal pain, bloating, shock, diarrhea, vomiting or regurgitation. Digestive disorders are probably among the most common reasons we take our pets to the vet for. Today, CBD as a nutraceutical may be beneficial for your dog’s upset stomach from diarrhea, vomiting, and constipation.
Digestive disorders are relatively easy- to- spot, with symptoms ranging from diarrhea and vomiting. Understanding the most common digestive problems in dogs, and how CBD may be effective will help you when your furry best friend has digestive issues. Stomach problems in dogs can result from something as simple as a change in diet to excess stress in your dog’s life. They may also be serious and need immediate veterinary care.
Digestive issues present as two types-acute and chronic. Your veterinarian will treat them according to the causes and symptoms. The most common issues are vomiting and diarrhea to weight loss and inappetence.
Gastroenteritis refers to inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It normally occurs in the stomach and intestines resulting from a bacterial infection, parasites, or viruses. They can also come about from a reaction to a medication or a change in diet.
Diarrhea in Dogs
This is a sign of a digestive disorder and can be attributed to numerous causes. Watery diarrhea that has a large volume is usually linked to hypersecretion. This is a condition when there is excess fluid that is secreted into the intestines, and maybe the result of a bacterial infection. It can also be caused by malabsorption where the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients.
Malabsorption comes about when there’s a defect in the intestinal cells that are responsible for absorption. This can be due to viruses like parvovirus, coronavirus, and rotavirus. It can also be caused by defects that would limit the ability of the intestines to absorb liquids. Defects in the pancreatic secretions that are needed for effective digestion also cause malabsorption.
Diarrhea can result in dehydration and electrolyte imbalance in dogs, which may result in shock. That said, it’s best to consult with your veterinarian to check for specific disorders or diseases affecting the digestive system.
Drugs may not be beneficial in every case involving diarrhea or constipation. Dogs will sometimes be prone to diarrhea when they need to get rid of harmful organisms and their toxins. Additionally, some of these drugs may not be beneficial in treating the condition. Your veterinarian may also recommend fluid and electrolyte replacement to prevent dehydration if your dog has severe vomiting or diarrhea.
If your dog is suffering from one of the most dangerous conditions, bloat, immediate emergency veterinary care is critical in which a stomach tube or surgery may be recommended, if the digestive tract is distended with gas, food, or fluid.
Dogs can easily be affected by foreign organisms that enter the mouth. Infections are spread in the way of direct contact or when food or water is contaminated. Although dogs have a certain amount of intestinal microorganisms in the digestive tract, found mostly in the intestines, these florae are good in helping with digestion, and in preventing infections in your dog.
Infections can occur when these organisms multiply which happens during stressful times, or when food or water is not fresh or clean. Dogs that have a weakened immune system will also be prone to having infectious diseases.
Your veterinarian will try to eliminate the cause of an infectious disease that involves drugs to kill parasites or bacteria, remedies for poisons or toxins. If there is a defect, surgery may be recommended. If there is pain involved, pain meds will be prescribed, but your dog will need to be monitored to ensure that the pain meds are not making the condition worse. Here’s the take on meds used for both bacterial and parasitic diseases:
- Oral antibiotics are given for bacterial infections for several days
- Injectable antibiotics for septicemia (blood poisoning) is likely
- Antibacterial meds
Your veterinarian will make a decision on whether to use antiparasitic drugs to control gastrointestinal parasites in your dog. The response to any of these treatments is fast, yet a combination of good hygiene is important to prevent reinfection. A balanced and high-quality diet is important along with regular veterinary care to prevent infectious diseases in dogs.
The causes of non-infectious diseases that affect the digestive system will include the following:
- Consuming a low-quality diet
- Consuming a foreign object that results with injury to the digestive system
- Enzyme deficiencies
- Gastric ulcers
Digestive system diseases include symptoms like vomiting and diarrhea due to kidney, adrenal gland, or liver failure. The causes of bloat or gastric torsion are still unknown.
Parasites will usually be the most common cause for triggering- off digestive tract disorders in dogs. Parasites can affect your dog’s well-being, overall fitness, and may result in serious disease. Some parasites only have one host with both eggs and larva distributed in the feces. This is infectious.
Fecal testing needs to be done at least twice yearly in both cats and dogs so that intestinal parasites can be screened for. Dogs with parasites that are responsible for a GI illness will have symptoms that include diarrhea and vomiting. De-worming is done to kill all parasites with a follow-up test to ensure that the dog is free of parasites.
Tests for GI illness in Dogs
GI illness that includes vomiting and diarrhea in dogs also includes fecal testing. Your veterinarian may do several tests to diagnose GI. These tests may include:
- Microscopic fecal examination
- Fecal Gram’s stain (to check for abnormal bacteria overgrowth)
- Elisa Test to check for protozoa parasite Giardia
- Fecal PCR test to check for the DNA of numerous parasites, bacterial toxins, and bacteria.
Gastrointestinal Problems and Kidney Failure
C hronic or long-term kidney disease may result in severe kidney damage. This will happen slowly and may continue for months. Your veterinarian will classify one of the four stages after tests and physical examinations are done.
With Stage 4, which is the final stage, your dog will have an accumulation of waste products in the bloodstream. He or she will also be very ill. Your dog’s diet will need to be modified to ensure that there is less phosphorus, and your veterinarian may recommend supplementing his diet with fish oil, and following up with all the necessary medications.
Nausea and vomiting are common with kidney failure, and dogs will start to lose their appetite and lose weight. With uremic gastritis, vomiting is seen in the later stages of kidney failure. Affected dogs may also develop stomach ulcers and vomit blood during the later stages of this disease.
There are also special diets that are recommended for kidney disease. Follow-up visits every month are recommended, where your veterinarian will focus on easing symptoms and pain in your dog. This will include limiting certain proteins or having intravenous fluids or feeding tubes.
With motion sickness, dogs will have a poor appetite, drool excessively, vomit, and also whine and yawn. Poor appetite continues for several hours after travel. It can usually be seen during air, car or ship travel.
Your veterinarian may prescribe meds to prevent motion sickness, and may also recommend tranquilizers or sedatives, and also meds to prevent nausea and vomiting. Taking pups traveling from a young age will help your dog throughout his life, and will minimize motion sickness later on.
What is CBD Oil?
CBD is a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that yields therapeutic and medicinal benefits for all dogs. To help you understand more about the benefits of CBD oil for dogs that have lost their appetite, CBD studies have shown that CBD may be beneficial in improving appetite, easing chronic pain, helping with digestive and skin issues and more!
CBD oil for pets contains 113 plus phytocannabinoids which work together as a therapeutic supplement. THC is the one phytocannabinoid that is not included in CBD pet products. Because hemp plants have low levels of THC, to begin with, it makes it easier for hemp farmers to further eliminate THC levels even further so ensure 100% safety for all cats, dogs, and horses.
Hemp CBD has a higher cannabidiol concentration, and lower THC level compared to marijuana. Hemp is a natural supplement, that cannot be overdosed on. It’s safe and non-toxic, and excess cannabidiol is excreted. That said, it’s much healthier than giving your dog Benadryl or pain meds that may have long-term side effects, and harm the kidneys and liver, although with serious illnesses your dog will need to have pain meds and drugs.
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2018 Study Demonstrating CBD Oil for Nausea & Loss of Appetite
A 2018 study shows how cannabidiol (CBD) may be effective in preventing nausea. The study adds that the researchers “ observed a surge in levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the rat interoceptive insular cortex (IIC) — a brain region responsible for nausea in humans — following injection with the nauseating chemical compound lithium chloride. This increase in serotonin and subsequent gaping behavior (a behavior displayed by rodents to flavors paired with a nauseating treatments) was prevented by treatment with cannabidiol — a form of cannabis that does not contain the component found in recreational marijuana responsible for the drug’s psychotropic effects,” via EurekAlert.
The study goes on to add that “Treatment with a drug that elevates the endogenous cannabinoid, 2-AG, also prevented the elevation of serotonin in the IIC by activating the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. These findings implicate the endocannabinoid system and IIC serotonin release in the sensation of nausea, opening up new therapeutic opportunities to explore in future research.”
CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system which controls endocrine processes. When it activates the receptors in the brain and body, CBD also influences the endocrine system. This system consists of a group of tissues that release hormones into the bloodstream, which in turn travel to other parts of the dog’s body.
CBD interacts with the Endocannabinoid System (ECS)
Some hormones will only act on a single tissue, while other hormones affect the whole body. When cannabidiol is used in dogs with reduced appetite, it triggers a “jump-start” on the endocannabinoid system and stimulates appetite. Cannabidiol acts on the endocannabinoid receptors and affects the receptors by regulating neural transmissions. CBD oil for dogs is helpful in the treatment of numerous conditions without taking on the intoxicating effect of marijuana.
Hemp CBD for pets contain phyto-cannabinoids, terpenes and fatty acids which support a huge range of ailments like phobias, anxiousness joint pain, inflammation, digestive issues, mobility, seizures, and anxiety. Today, there are numerous studies that indicate that CBD for pets may have many uses, some of which traditional meds fail to match.
CBD & Seizures
A 2019 randomized clinical trial on cannabidiol by Dr. Stephanie McGrath found that “ Dogs in the CBD group had a significant (median change, 33%) reduction in seizure frequency, compared with the placebo group. However, the proportion of dogs considered responders to treatment (≥ 50% decrease in seizure activity) was similar between groups. Plasma CBD concentrations were correlated with a reduction in seizure frequency. Dogs in the CBD group had a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. No adverse behavioral effects were reported by owners,” via PubMed. The study adds that additional research is needed to determine whether a higher dosage of CBD would be effective in reducing seizure activity in dogs by 50%.
Cannabidiol May Be Beneficial for Digestive Health in Dogs
First and foremost, if your dog is showing signs of illness, consult with your veterinarian for treatment. Some signs of digestive issues in dogs can be serious like poisoning, bloat, pancreatitis, liver or kidney failure or an obstruction in the gut or stomach. CBD does not replace veterinary care or treatment.
Gut Health & The Endocannabinoid System (ECS)
The ECS includes a series of receptors, specialized proteins, and neurotransmitters that all work together to regulate your dog’s body functions. With gastrointestinal motility issues, the ECS is important in regulating GI motility in dogs. In addition, research has found that cannabidiol is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility. It does so by reducing inflammation and allowing for the proper functioning of the digestive tract.
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CBD as an Antibiotic
Another 2019, CBD study from the University of Queensland’s Institute for Molecular Bioscience with Dr. Blaskovich and his team of researchers together with Botanix Pharmaceuticals LTD, published in the American Society of Microbiology, found that cannabidiol is beneficial in fighting gram-positive bacteria like staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia, with potencies similar to that of established antibiotics such as vancomycin or daptomycin. It’s now being researched for its potential as an antibiotic.
CBD for Inflammation Reduction in Dogs
A 2017 study concludes that “Given cannabidiol’s documented anti-inflammatory effects, existing safety data in humans, and potential for varied delivery routes, it is a promising new antibiotic worth further investigation. The combination of inherent antimicrobial activity and the potential to reduce damage caused by the inflammatory response to infections is particularly attractive,” via Science Daily.” Importantly, the drug retained its activity against bacteria that have become highly resistant to other common antibiotics. Under extended exposure conditions that lead to resistance against vancomycin or daptomycin, Cannabidiol did not lose effectiveness. Cannabidiol was also effective at disrupting biofilms, a physical form of bacteria growth that leads to difficult-to-treat infections.”
Leading research published in Frontiers of Pharmacology adds that cannabidiol treatment improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. It concludes that “ this study has shown that a short in vivo treatment protocol with CBD was associated with improvements in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries, and an improvement in the profile of cardiovascular and metabolic parameters,” via Frontiers Media SA.
Today, we understand how closely gut health is related to other body systems like the central nervous system and the immune system. With the endocannabinoid system playing a major role in the gut/brain axis of dogs, it seems that CBD hemp pet products may be beneficial for your dog’s stomach problems. ECS helps regulate digestive signals and transmissions in the body. Receptors (CB1 and CB2) work better with support when the dog’s stomach is upset
It can also be used as a preventative care supplement to boost optimal health in pets.
CBD Oil for Dogs
Cannabidiol oil works together with the ECS to support gut health. If you’re opting to purchase a CBD tincture for your furry best friend as a digestive aid, be sure to look out for the following:
- Organic CBD oil
- Specifically formulated for pets
- Offers accurate and informative dosing information
- Offers a certificate of analysis (COA)
CBD can help pets with Irritable Bowel Disease, gastritis, food allergies, and other stomach issues. Additionally, it may be beneficial for both parasites and infections. Studies are still ongoing. Cannabidiol pet products that are of a high-quality CBD oil can also help to reduce the effects of traditional veterinary medications to help dogs feel more comfortable while they’re being treated.
CBD may help by increasing your dog’s appetite, and also by boosting your dog’s weakened immune system. Cannabidiol tinctures or treats are also beneficial for reducing stress and pain in dogs that are suffering from an upset stomach.
All in all, you’ll need to zero- in on all your dog’s health issues with your veterinarian for a diagnosis and treatment options. With CBD pet products touted for so many health issues from anxiety and pain relief to seizure reduction and even cancer support, deciding on which CBD pet products to use may seem daunting. Consult with a holistic veterinarian about how to use hemp-derived pet products, and as always, discuss the best dosage and potencies for your dog’s specific illness.
How CBD Supplements Can Help A Dog With Digestive Problems
If you’re noticing that your furry best friend is having a slew of belly aches and digestive problems, it may be time to give him CBD. CBD, or cannabidiol, can help relieve your dog of digestive issues, such as nausea, vomiting, and pain, naturally and effectively. In just a couple of weeks of CBD treatment, your dog will be back to his playful self.
Although CBD use in humans is widely accepted today, its use for dogs has only been recognized in the past few years. The idea of using CBD for dogs is so new that more extensive research is required. There’s a 2019 survey of United States veterinarians asking about the health benefits of cannabidiol for dogs . The survey questions the vets about their opinions and perceptions of CBD treatment for dogs. Results indicated that 45 percent of the vets felt comfortable talking about CBD with their clients, and 62 percent of them felt comfortable talking about it with other vets.
The research on CBD treatment for digestive conditions in dogs is limited but positive and encouraging. Since dogs have the same endocannabinoid system as humans, it seems that dogs can benefit from CBD just as much.
The studies that have been implemented on dogs mainly focus on safety. In a 2020 preliminary investigation , researchers concluded that increasing CBD doses in dogs is safe and causes only mild adverse reactions.
How Does CBD Work for Digestive Conditions in Dogs?
To make an informed decision about whether you should give your dog CBD, you should know all you can about it. First, you should talk to your vet about your dog’s health and whether CBD will benefit him. You’ll also want to check out different CBD products for pets, from reliable sellers like CBDMEDIC , to see which ones are organic and have little or no THC.
What is CBD?
CBD is a chemical compound found in marijuana and hemp plants. Although alike, the two plants are different in that the CBD that comes from hemp has less THC, about 0.3 percent, than CBD that comes from the marijuana plant. This is crucial because THC is the component of the plant that gives the “high” feeling. And, you don’t want your dog to be “high.” A CBD dosage calculator is a fine way to keep the dosage under check.
Evidence shows that CBD can improve nausea, vomiting, and pain in humans. It’s suggested that since dogs have the same endocannabinoid system as humans, they too can benefit from CBD treatment.
The Endocannabinoid System in Dogs
Since dogs and other animals with a vertebra have an endocannabinoid system, their bodies are “programmed” to receive CBD. Meaning, the receptors in the endocannabinoid system accept CBD and use it to fulfill the function of providing homeostasis (balance) in the body. The endocannabinoid system is responsible for many functions, including pain, memory, mood, appetite, stress, sleep, metabolism, immune function, and reproductive function.
3 Common Digestive Conditions in Dogs that CBD Can Help
Although there are many digestive conditions that dogs can have, there are three common issues that CBD can relieve. They are the following:
If you’re a dog owner, you’ve probably had experiences when your dog vomits. It’s inevitable. Dogs get into garbage, drink contaminated water, or eat contaminated food. There also could be an underlying medical condition that requires serious attention. A good rule of thumb is if your dog vomits once, he’s probably going to be fine. However, if he vomits multiple times, excessively, vomits up blood, has diarrhea containing blood, or has seizures, you should seek medical attention immediately.
There’s extensive research on how CBD can help curb nausea and vomiting in humans. Research on dogs is limited but ongoing. Although there’s limited research on dogs, human studies on the effects of CBD on nausea and vomiting resulting from chemotherapy are conclusive — CBD is an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting.
Nausea and vomiting are part of a dog’s protective defenses to avoid ingestion or digestion of potentially harmful substances. Vomiting excessively could be a sign of health conditions like liver damage or stroke. In situations like these, the faster you get your dog to the vet, the more likely it will recover.
2. Abdominal Pain
Abdominal pain is common with digestive conditions. Clinical signs of abdominal pain in your dog include restlessness, guarding or splinting of the abdomen, arched back, or “prayer position” (front legs on the floor, back legs stood up). If you notice any of these signs, it’s vital to take your dog to the vet to determine the underlying cause of the pain. Abdominal pain, depending on the cause, can be treated with medications and CBD. CBD can help reduce pain, which allows your dog to feel more comfortable and not distressed.
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is much like its human counterpart, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). If your dog has recurring episodes of diarrhea and vomiting, there could be damage in the digestive and intestinal tracts. This is a sign of IBD. With IBD, your dog could also have a loss of appetite and lose weight, although it will seem fine. Treatment with medications and CBD can help with your dog’s IBD discomfort by easing the inflammation in the digestive and intestinal tracts.
Human trials prove that CBD has anti-inflammatory properties for various diseases , including Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome (IBS). These studies are promising for dogs since they have the same endocannabinoid system as humans.
Although it’s necessary to see a veterinarian for all of these health conditions, you can still use CBD as a supplement to help ease discomfort and reduce nausea, pain, and inflammation. You can administer CBD by putting it in your dog’s food, mixing it with your dog’s treats, using CBD dog products, or directly giving CBD oil.
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10 Potential Side Effects of CBD Oil for Dogs: Read This First!
In case you’ve been living under a rock, CBD has become one of the biggest wellness crazes in recent memory. Cannabis compounds were illegal until only recently, and CBD was the first to receive the praise and attention that helped to catapult it to its current popularity. It was only a matter of time until this wellness craze spread to our pets, and that time has come.
Today, you can find all manner of CBD products created specifically for pets, including treats, tinctures, and even toys. CBD is touted as a safe and natural compound for any adult to take, but is it the same for our dogs? Let’s take a closer look at CBD for dogs and the potential side effects that it may cause before you go and start offering CBD treats to your favorite canine compadre.
What is CBD Oil?
CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol; a compound that’s found in cannabis and hemp. Cannabis is quite famous for its psychoactive effects, but cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive compound. This means that CBD doesn’t produce any high like other cannabis products that contain tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC.
Within cannabis, THC is the main component that produces the psychoactive sensations, but CBD provides many of the other positive effects that the cannabis plant is known to provide, such as a host of medical benefits.
Image Credit: iAmMrBenjamin, Shutterstock
Is CBD Oil Safe for Dogs?
CBD has been proven to provide positive benefits for people. For instance, it’s used to treat epilepsy, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. According to the World Health Organization, “CBD is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile.” But this is in regards to humans, which leaves us to wonder how safe CBD is for our dogs.
Currently, testing is ongoing. Groups like the AKC Canine Health Foundation are sponsoring studies about CBD’s effect on dogs, though there’s no definitive answer yet as to its efficacy or safety. However, according to PubMed, CBD has not been shown to be detrimental in healthy dogs.
10 Potential Side Effects of CBD for Dogs
Despite CBD’s purported benefits for people and relative safety, there are some side effects that your dog might suffer as a result of this compound; particularly if given too much.
1. Dry Mouth
Many people are aware that cannabis can cause cottonmouth in people, but CBD can also have a similar effect on your dog. While it might be gross that your dog drools everywhere, that slobber is actually important for their health. If CBD causes your dog’s mouth to become dry, it can result in poor dental health, bad breath, and even cause pain when swallowing.
Another common side effect of cannabis use in people is drowsiness or laziness. Though CBD doesn’t contain any THC, your dog could still show signs of lethargy when dosed with CBD. Generally, this is due to a dose that’s too large, so if your dog gets drowsy after a dose of CBD, you might want to reduce the dosage size.
Image Credit: Pixabay
CBD can also cause dizziness in your dog. You’ll have to look for signs that indicate your dog is dizzy, such as trouble standing up or repeated falling over. This can easily occur if the CBD you’re using isn’t pure and contains trace amounts of THC, the psychoactive substance in cannabis that causes the “high” that users experience. While this might be pleasurable for some people, it might not be such a thrill for your pup.
4. Increased Tremors
One of the main reasons people administer CBD to themselves or their pets is to treat epileptic seizures. As such, you might think that it’s a good compound to help with Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, CBD has the potential to increase the tremors associated with Parkinson’s, in both humans and canines.
You might notice that your dog tends to scratch, bite, and itch a lot after being dosed with CBD. If so, then you’ll either want to reduce the dosage or cease it altogether. While this isn’t a particularly common side effect, it’s certainly possible, and it’s something you should be on the lookout for.
Image Credit: Zivica Kerkez, Shutterstock
6. Low Blood Pressure
CBD has been shown to cause temporary drops in blood pressure when administered in high doses. This can cause light-headedness, which your dog won’t appreciate. Since this is usually dose-dependent, reducing the amount you’re giving to your dog should help to eliminate this side effect.
7. Upset Stomach
Anything your dog isn’t used to consuming can cause an upset stomach. Even switching dog foods will wreak havoc on many dogs’ stomachs. CBD is no different, and especially in high doses, it can cause quite a lot of discomfort for your canine.
When stomach discomfort is taken to the extreme, it can often induce vomiting. This could be as a result of the compound itself, or it might just be from the taste. CBD is a rather bitter substance and your dog may not like the taste of it. But if the CBD upsets your dog’s stomach enough, they’ll likely throw it back up.
Image Credit: Mumemories, Shutterstock
It can be hard to pinpoint CBD as the culprit when your dog has diarrhea since so many things can cause diarrhea in dogs. But if you’ve removed all other variables and narrowed your dog’s diarrhea down to the CBD you’ve given them, then you’ll either need to reduce the dosage or refrain from giving your dog CBD.
10. Inhibited Production of Liver Enzymes
CBD can affect the way your body metabolizes other drugs because it inhibits the production of liver enzymes. As a result, other drugs can become several times more potent, which can lead to accidental overdose; a deadly occurrence that you’ll need to take care to avoid. If your dog is currently taking other medications, be sure to get veterinary approval before adding CBD to its regimen.
Though CBD is considered safe for humans and even for dogs in most cases, it can have side effects for both of us. While we can decide if the possibility of side effects is worth the potential benefits we could see from taking CBD, your dog can’t make that decision. You have to decide what’s best for your dog. So, keep in mind all of the potential side effects your dog might suffer before you decide to dose them with CBD. And it’s always a good idea to get your vet’s professional opinion first.
- You may also want to read: Relievet CBD Dog Treats Review: Our Expert’s Opinion
Featured Image Credit: Erin Stone, Pixabay
Lead Pet Expert & Pet-ditor in Chief
Nicole is the proud mom of 3 rescue fur babies, Baby, a Burmese cat; Rosa, a New Zealand Huntaway; and Mac, a Lab/Mastiff. A Canadian expat, Nicole now lives on a lush forest property with her Kiwi husband and new baby daughter in New Zealand. She has a strong love for all animals of all shapes and sizes (and particularly loves a good interspecies friendship) and wants to share her animal knowledge and other experts’ know ledge with pet lovers across the globe. . Read more