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best cbd oil for a dachshund

KING KALM™ CBD 150mg for Dachshunds

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King Kalm CBD Oil for Pets 150mg

KING KALM™ CBD Oilfor dachshunds is made with all natural cannabidiol from hemp and infused with omega-3 rich krill oil. This 150mg CBD for cats and dogs is available in a 30ml bottle with one oral syringe for easy delivery. Like the rest of KING KALM™ products, this oil also comes with a handy dosing chart to help owners determine what the best dosage for their pets is.

While it might not be obvious by looking at their bodies, Dachshunds were actually bred to be hunting dogs in the fifteenth and sixteenth-century Germany. These hot-dog shaped pups would be used to ferret out small prey from their dens, which is why the breed used to be called “earth dogs” and “badger creepers.” Using their keen sense of scent, the little dogs would also be used to keep the trail of bigger animals that they probably couldn’t take down on their own. In this sense Dachshunds have always been people dogs, accompanying their owners on hunts in earlier times to accompanying them to the couch nowadays.

CBD for Dachshunds is an increasingly popular trend in the veterinary world because of the compound’s potential to treat multiple health and emotional ailments, as well as for its reputation of carrying few to no negative side effects. Scientists and pet experts alike are recommending the usage of the compound to Dachshund owners whose pets suffer from an array of diseases or problems which we’ll discuss below, but also to owners whose dogs could use a generally healthy supplement in their diets as they age. Keep reading and King Kanine will teach you everything there is to know about CBD oil for Dachshunds .

CBD for Dachshunds – An Introduction

CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabis-derived compound that is thought to work by interacting with the body’s endocannabinoid system, a recently discovered system that is thought to play a role in everything from pain and symptom management to healthy digestion and a proper sleep schedule. What is considered so great about the compound is that it is easy to add to a dog’s diet, no matter their size or temperament, and that it is thought to carry virtually no negative side effects at all. This is huge for dog owners who are tired of giving their dogs pharmaceutical products that may ease their dogs’ symptoms but add a bunch of other negative side-effects to boot. CBD is all-natural and organic, making a real outlier in the dog world, and it is recommended by pet experts for multiple reasons which we’ll discuss below. The compound is available in multiple forms, including edibles, topicals, and oils, making it a truly diverse supplement that can be customized according to a dog’s tastes and preferences. Keep reading to find out what else is so great about CBD for Dachshunds.

CBD oil for Dachshunds– Health Benefits

The diminutive Dachshund is a generally healthy dog, living upward of fourteen years when they are especially healthy, but like all dogs, they are prone to certain issues which can become more common as they age. Some issues the breed suffers from include intervertebral disc disease, epilepsy, progressive retinal atrophy, gastric bloat and torsion, diabetes, and arthritis. CBD is recommended by an increasing number of pet experts to help dogs suffering from these issues because of its potential to act on the micro-level as well as the macro. CBD is thought to be able to regulate neural pathways, making it a possible pain management treatment, and with consistent use in a dog’s diet, the compound is thought to have the ability to prevent some of these issues as well as ease their symptoms. Its effectiveness makes it a truly unique organic product in the market, and owners are constantly reaching out and asking us how incorporating it into their dog’s diet can make a swift difference. All dog owners love their pups, and we’d do everything possible to ease their pain or potentially prevent certain issues from becoming more pronounced in their lives, and the availability of an all-natural, organic product with few side effects is something truly new in the veterinary world.

CBD for Dachshunds – Support Calmness

Being attached to their people, Dachshunds can frequently suffer from anxiousness which happens when they are separated from their owners and families. Often, vets will recommend training and socialization early on so that the dogs will understand how to behave and act on their own without causing a mess around the house. Still, training can’t help all dogs, and owners are always on the lookout for supplements and products that can potentially increase calmness without causing them more problems. CBD is recommended for exactly this purpose. The compound is thought to be effective in calming nerves because of its potential to aid in the transformation of negative energy to positive energy and making negative energy easier to handle.

In addition to being helpful for calming Dachshunds, CBD is also thought to be helpful when it comes to training the breed, which is known for its stubbornness. If you have a Dachshund who is anxious or is hard-headed and needs to be trained, consider reaching out to King Kanine today and seeing which of our amazing CBD products is right for your pup.

CBD oil for cats and dogs

Our CBD for pets combines high-quality cannabidiol with natural krill oil to deliver a more potent therapeutic effect than CBD alone. Owners around the world have used our products to aid their pets with symptoms related to low calmness, inflammation, noise discomfort, loss of appetite, and more.

Why buy King Kalm CBD for Dachshund’s

KING KALM™ pet CBD oil is made with extracts obtained from industrial hemp grown in the United States. Each product is formulated with your pet in mind manufactured in our ISO-9001 Certified FDA Facility. Our CBD for cats and dogs has been tested in a third-party lab to ensure purity and safety making us the best CBD oilfor pets in the market.

See our King Kalm FAQs for Further Information.

*CBD Oil Color May Vary

Suggested Dose: Please use the dosing chart included in the box (also posted above with product images). Administer 1-2 times a day.

**Due to recent studies and customer reviews, splitting the recommended dose into two servings has proven most effective.

Ingredients : Naturally Occurring Broad Spectrum Cannabidiol (CBD), Krill Oil, Hemp Oil

Consult with a professional veterinarian prior to use.

Why choose King Kalm?

Broad spectrum Phytocannabinoid rich oils

  • CO2 extraction
  • Each product is formulated with your pet in mind manufactured in our GMP Certified, ISO-9001 FDA registered facility.
  • Third party lab tested (available upon request)
  • Homogenously suspended in Krill oil and lavender
  • Edible recipes are formulated by our license holistic physician and nutritional expert
  • Free of solvents, pesticides, metals and unnatural substances
  • All oils come with a dosing chart and oral syringe (our charts and delivery method is to ensure the maximum amount of CBD per dose)

CBD or Cannabidiol is one of over 80 cannabinoid compounds found in the cannabis/hemp plant. It is a completely natural, plant-based compound that is non-toxic, non-psychoactive, and does not produce a so-called “high.”

How do I know if my dog or cat needs CBD?

As mammals, all dogs, cats, and humans have what is called an Endocannabinoid System (ECS). This system contains receptors which when bound to create and modulate an immune system response, can have a profound effect on the nervous system and many common conditions that plague both us and our furry family members.

Will CBD interact with my pets medication?

We always recommend consulting with your veterinarian prior to using our products.

Is it as effective for dogs or cats as it is for humans?

What makes King Kalm CBD different from other CBD pet products?

King Kalm™ CBD is derived from Broad Spectrum Cannabidiol Oils. Extracted from the highest quality all naturally occurring hemp and suspended in high omega-3 Krill Oil. Our CBD is lab tested vigorously and often for its potency and bio-availability. We do not use ANY artificial ingredients, flavors, preservatives, or colors whatsoever. Our product is 100% pure and something that can be found only in nature. We only create and sell a product we would give to our own pets.

How do I know which strength/bottle to choose?

There are many factors in deciding which milligram bottle to choose which can also depend on the ailment you are treating. Since each dog and family is different it really becomes a personal decision.
Please use this chart to choose:
Small sized pet 20 lbs & under – 75mg bottle (approximately 2.5mg / 1ML)
Medium sized pet 21lbs to 50 lbs – 150mg bottle (approximately 5mg / 1ML)
Large sized pet over 50 lbs – 300mg bottle (approximately 10mg / 1ML)

How much CBD is there in the King Kalm Crunch treats?

There are approximately 3-4 milligrams of CBD per treat and approximately 30 treats in each 8oz bag.

How do I dose King Kalm CBD?

Each box of King Kalm™ CBD comes with a dosing chart that may guide you based on your pet’s weight.
Please note: This product has not been approved by the FDA and is not intended to treat, diagnose or cure any disease. Always consult a veterinarian prior to supplementing any product.

How do I give my pet the oil?

Each box comes with an oral syringe to administer in their mouth. That is the preferred method but you can put it in your pets food as a second option.

Is King Kalm CBD given more than once a day?

Administer the dose once a day and take notes of how your pet is responding. Monitor the signs and symptoms over a few days to weeks’ time. Make adjustments based on your pets response.

Once I start CBD therapy, do I have to always give it to them?

Ask yourself this; once you decide to eat healthy, do you have to continue eating healthy in order to gain the benefits from the nutrients and vitamins found in that food? The answer is yes. This is a lifestyle change and like all other lifestyle changes they must be consistent in order to achieve the best results. There are no greater results to be had than the health of our four legged family members.

How does King Kalm help with my pet’s health problems?

The FDA prohibits the correlation of our products and the healing of any medical condition and or ailments. We recommend trying one of our products for at least one month to witness any changes in your pet.

Can CBD Oil Help Calm My Anxious Dachshund?

I know what it’s like to have an anxious dog. Gretel was so nervous she was on Prozac when I adopted her.

Over the years, she’s calmed down and learned to not be so reactive. However, sometimes when she gets stressed, her inner demon still rears its ugly head.

I help control her anxiety naturally now using CBD products made for dogs.

What is CBD?

CBD (Cannabidiol) is a product of the cannabis plant. It’s present in an animal’s body naturally but it can also be introduced externally.

In the case of CBD for pets, the extract is created from the hemp plant, which has virtually no THC (the substance that gets people high – so it won’t get your pet high).

It’s considered a supplement, not a drug, and is legal in most states .

The science of how externally-introduced CBD interacts with the body is not clearly understood.

However, what IS understood, is that it can have a very positive effect on the body including pain reduction, minimizing inflammation in joints, improving mental health, plus many more benefits .

How CBD Can Help Your Dog’s Mood

When you give your dog CBD treats or oil, the CBD enters the pet’s endocannabinoid system and activates receptors in the central nervous system.

These receptors excrete serotonin, and natural calming hormone. CBD also helps these receptors more easily speak to each other so all parts of the body can be signaled to calm down.

Can CBD Oil or Treats Help My Pet’s Anxiety?

When your dog is in a calmer, happier state, it’s easier for them to self sooth, pay attention to training signals from you, and make better choices based on prior training.

However, although CBD is touted as a miracle when it comes to helping a pet with anxiety, it doesn’t work in every case and is not a cure-all.

Disclaimer: I’m not a veterinarian so you should check with yours if you have questions about CBD and before giving your pet a new supplement.

Whether CBD will help your pet with anxiety first depends on the type of anxiety your pet is experiencing.

There are many types of pet anxiety common in dogs, which can be broken down into several categories, including:

    – your pet is nervous when they are separated from you or people in general
  • Rescue/former shelter anxiety – your rescue dog is nervous all the time, likely due to dealing with an unpredictable routine or environment in the past
  • General anxiety – your dog is just nervous by nature and/or you can’t pinpoint a specific cause
  • Situational anxiety – your pet is nervous only in the presence of certain stressors like meeting new dogs or fireworks
  • Illness-induced anxiety – if your dog is usually calm but suddenly starts acting anxious, it could be caused by an underlying illness or disease

If you notice a sudden change in behavior and anxiety levels in your dog, it’s important to take them to your veterinarian to rule out medical causes.

CBD is unlikely to help your pet with their anxiety if it’s illness-induced, at least in the short-term. Plus, you don’t want to “cover up the symptoms” of anxiety and miss that there is something else going on with your pet.

CBD may be able to help your dog with situational anxiety or the other 3 types, which fall under the category of behavioral anxiety.

However, while CBD alone may help calm a dog with situational anxiety, you should only consider it a complimentary aid for a dog with behavioral anxiety.

Behavioral anxiety also needs to be addressed with training and/or by controlling their environment.

The bottom line is, CBD has helped many pets with nervousness and anxiety. I definitely think it’s worth a try.

There is no guarantee it will be effective for your dog though, at least perhaps not to the degree your pet needs.

Where Can I Find Quality CBD for My Dog?

Note: some of the links below are affiliate links. This means when you click on a link and make a purchase, I will receive a small commission at no extra cost to you. All opinions are my own and I only recommend things we think are really great.

I’ve been using CBD to help Gretel with anxiety for over 2 years and have tried at least 10 different brands. One that really stood out to me was HempMy Pet.

With HempMy Pet, I saw a difference in Gretel’s anxiety after a lower dose than the others.

I was able to scale back to a double dose, vs at least triple dose with the others, to get the calming results she needed.

Besides the CBD oil and dog treats being effective for Gretel’s anxiety, I really like HempMy Pet products because.

  • They always use the same strain of hemp to ensure the same potency and consistency
  • Their CBD extract is from hemp grown organically, using sustainable farming practices, in Colorado
  • They have control of the entire production process from start to finish
  • They ensure their carrier oils – hemp seed oil and virgin coconut oil – are the freshest of the batch
  • Their full-spectrum hemp oil contains not just CBD but also CBG, CBC, CBDV and other beneficial cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids
  • Their products are 3rd-party lab tested not just for potency but also for safety and purity (the lab results will be available on their website shortly).

While I use the Hemp Seed Oil i nfused with CBD Hemp Extract from HempMy Pet in Gretel’s meal daily for general health.

I use their Handmade Hemp Infused Organic Dog Biscuits for Gretel’s situational anxiety because they are convenient. The CBD dog biscuits are the easiest for me to give Gretel on the go, which is usually when she needs it most.

Read my HempMy Pet Review HERE

How much CBD Should I Give My Dog for Anxiety?

If you are using pet CBD products to help calm your anxious dog, the first thing you’ll want to do is make sure you are giving them the proper dose .

The CBD dosage listed on the back of the package is the best starting place.

CBD doesn’t affect all dogs equally. Also, some anxiety is more easily soothed than others. Therefore, you may have to adjust the amount up or down depending on your individual dog.

For anxiety, I need to give Gretel 2-3 times the recommended dose to notice a difference (CBD has been found to be generally safe, even in high doses so it’s ok to do that). If you don’t see a difference with your dog, try increasing the dose.

I tried giving the same dose to my dog Chester, who was the same breed and a pound heavier than Gretel, for his dementia-related anxiety, and it was too much for him. He wasn’t just calm, he was drowsy. I had to cut his dose back to about half of what Gretel needed.

How Long Will I Have to Wait to See a Difference?

I noticed over time with Gretel, and confirmed with several sources, that it’s most effective to administer a dose of CBD 30-45 minutes before I think she will need it. That’s how long it seems to take effect with most dogs.

For prolonged stressful situations, I give her additional, smaller maintenance doses throughout the duration.

Stressful situations I give Gretel CBD for include:

  • When meeting unfamiliar dogs
  • When I take her to get her nails trimmed
  • When she has to visit the veterinarian

Meeting other dogs is the big one for us.

We often hike with friends who own dogs. Usually, Gretel has not met them before. In truth though, it doesn’t matter. She always seems nervous around other dogs at first even if she has.

Since we typically drive over an hour to the trailhead, I keep a couple hemp cookies in my cup holder and give them to her 40 minutes before we are due to arrive.

While CBD can help most dogs with general wellness, it doesn’t necessarily help all dogs with anxiety.

If you still don’t see results an hour after the dose, you can try increasing it. If you still don’t see a difference in your dog’s anxiety, CBD might not be the best holistic anxiety remedy for your dog.

Disclosure: I was compensated by HempMy Pet in exchange for my time spent sharing information about CBD for dogs and about their products. I don’t accept stuff “in exchange for a review” unless I am sure I already like it because I won’t try to make something seem better than it is out of obligation. Thanks for trusting me on that.

CBD Oil for Dachshunds

Your Dachshund is, without a doubt, the cutest dog on the block.

With her loving nature and charming looks, I know she gets constant attention from all your friends and family.

Unfortunately, due to their unique build, I’m sure you’re aware that Dachshunds suffer from specific health problems, especially back issues.

So, you’re probably looking for ways to help your Dachshund stay healthy, and have likely heard about CBD supplements.

In this article, I’m going to outline how CBD may help prevent some of the main health issues affecting Dachshunds.

Our Pick:

This is our top choice for small dogs. It’s a 100% Organic Full Spectrum Oil that has received wonderful reviews of many pet owners.

Exclusive Bonus: Download a free checklist to discover if your Dachshund actually needs CBD. Pet owners can get access here.

Dachshunds

Despite their friendly appearance and character, Dachshunds were bred to be prolific hunters.

They were bred in Germany well before the 15th century and were originally a lot larger back then, weighing anywhere between 10-20 lbs.

They’d hunt anything from boar to rabbits, and were bred to make perfect, hard-working, and obedient hunting companions.

In the 19th century, Dachshunds became popular as pets, and were crossed with other breeds to create the smaller breed we know and love today.

Common Health Problem Affecting Dachshunds

Dachshunds are relatively healthy dogs, and can live up to 15 or even 20 years.

However, their peculiar build makes them prone to back problems, as well as arthritis or dysplasias.

Dachshunds are also prone to developing weight issues, which can lead to a variety of other problems.

Here is a list to review. Does your dog have any of these issues?

  • Diabetes: Diabetes has many different causes. One of those is genetics, and this breed is believed to be slightly more prone to developing diabetes than some other breeds. Dachshunds are also prone to having weight issues, which is a leading cause of diabetes in dogs just like in humans.
  • Eye Problems: Dachshunds are prone to developing a variety of eye conditions, including dry eye, cataracts, and Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA).
  • Hip Dysplasia: Hip dysplasia is a genetic condition, meaning it is usually passed down from parents to their litter. It is characterized by a malformation of the hip joint, causing the bones in the joint to grind against each other.
  • Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) and other back problems: IVDD and other back problems are the #1 health concern for Dachshunds. Unfortunately, due to their breeding, roughly 1 in 4 Dachshunds develop IVDD at some point in their life.
  • Obesity: Dachshunds are notorious for struggling to manage their weight. This is generally caused by a poor diet, overeating or a lack of exercise, but can also be the result of an underlying condition like hip dysplasia or arthritis, which might leave a dog avoiding physical activity.
  • Patellar Luxation: Patellar luxation happens when the knee is not formed properly, which causes it to dislocate on a regular basis. While it doesn’t cause acute pain, it usually leads to arthritis.
  • Skin Issues: Dachshunds are fairly prone to developing skin diseases. Acanthosis nigricans, for example is unique to the Dachshund.

How Can CBD Help My Dachshund?

Reading about your dog’s potential health problems is no fun.

But remember, there are plenty of options out there to help you improve your Dachshunds condition if they happen to suffer from one of these ailments.

One of those options is CBD, or cannabidiol, a natural, plant-based compound found in cannabis and hemp plants.

Below I’m going to look at 2 common conditions affecting Dachshunds.

But before I get started, you’re probably wondering who I am.

My name’s Blake, and only a few years ago I was in a similar position to you:

My dog Rosie, a gorgeous Golden Retriever was diagnosed with Cancer.

The poor girl was already dealing with hip dysplasia and it eventually caused her to develop arthritis as well.

Following Rosie’s cancer diagnose, I was set on helping her enjoy her remaining years to the fullest.

This is when the topic of CBD came across my desk.

Obviously, I wasn’t convinced from the get-go.

In fact, I was more than hesitant to give my dog Rosie a medicine derived from “pot.”

But, I learned that CBD is a completely safe, compound that causes no side effects.

And, most importantly, it’s non-psychoactive, meaning it won’t get your pooch “high.”

Today, I’m so glad I decided to try CBD.

Within only a few days of trying it, Rosie’s condition improved immeasurably.

It was so obvious she was in less pain, but she also became more active and regained her appetite (which was always a little off following a her chemo treatments).

Best of all, I was able to extend her life well beyond my vet’s original estimates.

Now, I want to help other pet owners learn about the huge potential of CBD.

So, here are 2 ways you can also harness the health benefits of CBD for specific ailments popular in Dachshunds.

Remember, CBD has many different health benefits, not just the ones I outline below.

CBD for Dachshunds With Back Problems

Back problems are the #1 health concern for Dachshunds.

The most common back problem affecting Dachshunds is IVDD (Intervertebral Disc Disease), which is estimated to affect around 25% of all Dachshunds at some point in their life.

IVDD is caused when a inter-vertebral disc bursts or herniates and bulges out of its original position.

Over time, these discs become hard, brittle, and begin pushing on surrounding tissue, including nerves.

The most obvious symptoms of IVDD are pain and lameness, especially in the affected part of the back and the hind legs.

Your dog may also cry out in pain as a result of IVDD, or experience other symptoms, including:

  • Hunches in the back or neck
  • Unwillingness to jump and avoidance of physical activity
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control
  • Reduced appetite
  • Lack of energy

IVDD is treatable, but the exact treatment your dog undergoes will vary depending on their exact condition.

In mild cases of IVDD, your vet will usually go for palliative treatment designed to minimize your dog’s pain while maximizing their ability to live a normal life without causing further damage to the spine.

In more serious cases of IVDD, your vet may decide to operate on your dog.

If your Dachshund suffers from IVDD and you’re looking for a natural way to control his/her pain, I highly recommend using CBD, especially as an alternative to regular pain medications.

Studies show that CBD is a natural painkiller and anti-inflammatory.

By stimulating your dog’s endocannabinoid system (a physiological system involved in managing everything from pain to memory and sleep), pain signals or “triggers” to the brain are reduced while also actively fighting inflammation around the body.

This is why CBD has become such as popular treatment option for people and animals suffering from arthritis.

Plus, the fact that CBD produces no side effects makes it especially attractive.

Most regular pain medications prescribed to dogs (like Metacam and Rimadyl, for example) can cause side effects, including:

  • Black, tarry or bloody stools or diarrhea
  • Increased or decreased activity
  • In-coordination
  • Seizures
  • Aggression
  • Skin irritation
  • Stomach ulcers
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Liver and kidney damage

I used CBD with my dog Rosie to manage the inflammation and pain caused by her hip dysplasia and arthritis.

Her condition had left her acting lethargic and lazy, which was not like the Rosie we knew at all.

She was always an active dog that loved to play, go for runs, and swim.

Occasionally, she’d also whimper or cry out in pain after performing some kind of activity/movement that especially hurt her hip or legs.

Once we started using CBD, however, that all changed. Many pet owners report the exact same thing as well.

Within just a few days, we noticed huge improvements to her condition.

She immediately became more active around the house and seemed to struggle less when getting up/laying down, or jumping up on the couch.

As we continued her treatment, she only improved further.

Within a few weeks, she was joining us on walks and back to playing in the park with her other fury friends.

If your dog suffers from IVDD, I highly recommend you try CBD to help manage his/her painful symptoms as well as control any inflammation that may be forming around their affected discs.

If, as a result of IVDD, your dog develops arthritis (which is very common), I also recommend using CBD to manage their pain and inflammation.

CBD for Dachshunds With Diabetes

There are many causes of dog diabetes.

Some common causes include:

  • Genetics (certain breeds, like Dachshunds, are more prone to developing diabetes)
  • Autoimmune conditions
  • Pancreatitis
  • Obesity
  • Certain medications

If your dog deals with diabetes, you’ll want to control their condition immediately.

Your vet will be able to help you do this, usually using certain medications, insulin injections, dietary/lifestyle changes.

While it is a serious health condition, dog diabetes is pretty manageable in a way that still lets your dog live a relatively normal life.

If your Dachshund pup deals with Diabetes, I highly recommend trying CBD oil.

In 2015, an Israeli company began developing CBD-based diabetes treatments after numerous studies showed that the compound could help treat and prevent the disease.

Studies suggest CBD can help fight diabetes in numerous ways, mainly by fighting the chronic inflammation seen in patients with type 2 diabetes, promoting immune health and metabolic processes.

Now, I know what you’re thinking:

“These studies are based on lab rats or humans, so how can I be sure my dog will react to CBD the same way?”

Well, while your dog’s anatomy may be different to yours, he/she actually has the exact same endocannabinoid system as you do.

This means they can benefit from CBD in much the same way as humans or other mammals.

Hence, if your dog suffers from diabetes, I highly recommend trying a CBD-rich pet supplement such as King Kanine CBD oil or treats.

I’ve also had success with Canna-Pet supplements and recommend them as well.

Are Other Small Dogs Seeing Results With CBD Products?

I’m not the only pet owner sharing the awesome results of CBD.

There are pet owners EVERYWHERE who use these supplements to help their dogs, cats, and even horses with everything from anxiety and behavioral issues, to cancer.

Deuce, for example, is a Dachshund whose owners use CBD capsules and oil to treat his diabetes, anxiety, and joint pain.

Screenshot taken from Canna-Pet.com

Like many other Dachshunds, Deuce had back issues as well, and his owners believe his symptoms have been reduced through the use of CBD supplements.

Chili used CBD to help with his cancer.

Screenshot taken from Canna-Pet.com

He used CBD treats and cookies to keep him happy through his last few years. His owners believe these biscuits helped make his remaining time as enjoyable as possible.

Another example is Erin, a Dachshund – Scottie mix.

Screenshot taken from Canna-Pet.com

She suffers from arthritis and had a lot of pain just walking. After using CBD, she’s almost running again! Her owners are extremely happy with the results these supplements have had in regards to her pain and inflammation.

Which Product is Best for Smaller Pets

Over the years I’ve tested out quite a few different brands.

I personally feel some performed better than others, and certain companies offer much better value when shopping online.

As of today, my top recommendation comes from a company that we’ve been using for quite some time: King Kanine.

They have a bunch of products, however their King Kalm CBD 300mg RX offers the best value.

For small dogs like Dachshunds, this particular oil should last you long enough to see some positive results.

If you want more specific details on our experience with these products, you can head over to my King Kanine review for more details.

If your pup is not feeling so great right now, I hope CBD can help!

Hey I’m Blake, the founder of this website. Our family was fortunately to have discovered CBD products after our dog Rosie was diagnosed with a few common ailments. I truly believe they enhanced her last few years, and it’s my passion to spread the word through this website. Thanks for visiting!

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cbd oil balm for acne

Can CBD Cream Get Rid of Acne?

Acne is a common problem for adolescents, both male and female. However, this pesky skin problem isn’t always left behind once we leave the teen years. Breakouts and flares can occur even in adults. Most folks turn to over-the-counter products. These can be full of chemicals and often don’t work. Sometimes they may even cause irritation or exacerbate skin issues. Seeing a dermatologist can get pricey. That’s why many people turn to more natural solutions. One such option is cannabidiol, better known as CBD.

You can get CBD in a variety of forms. When it comes to addressing skin problems, a topical option is likely your best bet. You put these creams, lotions or serums directly on the skin. Such products can be good for issues like joint pain and muscle tension, but can CBD cream get rid of acne? Keep reading to learn more.

CBD comes from the cannabis plant. It’s a compound known as a cannabinoid that contains a number of healing properties. Cannabidiol offers various benefits. Two of the most common include relief of pain and anxiety. CBD does not contain THC, the compound found in cannabis that produces a psychotropic effect. Therefore, there’s no worry that using a CBD product will cause you to get high or to feel impaired in any way.

The Endocannabinoid System

Cannabidiol exhibits the health benefits it does by working with a system known as the endocannabinoid system. This framework within your body is responsible for a number of functions such as appetite, mood, pain, and memory. These functions all come together to contribute to overall health.

Endocannabinoids are neurotransmitters produced within this system and sent throughout the body to react with different receptors. Each interaction performs a different function.

Examples of functions controlled by these interactions include:

  • Appetite and digestion
  • Pain
  • Mood
  • Inflammation
  • Motor control
  • Immune responses
  • Cardiovascular system function
  • Learning and memory
  • Liver function
  • Skin and nerve function
  • Stress levels
  • Muscle formation
  • Reproductive system function

When something throws off your body’s balance or homeostasis, the endocannabinoid system goes into action to return things to normal. Phytocannabinoids within CBD mimic endocannabinoids. They maximize the functions within your endocannabinoid system in cases where deficiencies exist.

Acne is a skin condition that is caused by clogged hair follicles. The follicles become overrun with excess oil and dead skin cells, leading to pimples, whiteheads or blackheads on your skin. Acne can affect you throughout your life, but it’s most commonly seen during the teen years. Areas you are likely to experience acne include the forehead, face, shoulders, upper back, and chest.

Sebum is the oily substance that helps to keep your skin lubricated. It’s secreted through glands beneath the skin known as sebaceous glands. When you notice oily skin, it’s because sebum has traveled up the hair follicles located in your pores. These hair follicles also shed dead skin cells. A buildup of these cells and excess sebum is what clogs the pores and causes acne breakouts. In addition, this can lead to an increased production of bacteria, which feeds the acne. Sometimes hormone fluctuations can exacerbate acne production, as well.

CBD works to help slow down the processes that lead to acne. Excess oil production, increased bacteria, and inflammation can all be addressed through the use of cannabidiol. At least this is what a study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation found to be true.

According to researchers’ findings, the endogenous cannabinoids, anandamide, and 2AG, which are products of the sebaceous glands act on CB2 receptors within the system and cause excess sebum production. CBD oil was demonstrated to inhibit the endocannabinoids in a way that helps to regulate and control the production of sebum.

The antibacterial effects of CBD oil are well-suited for the treatment of acne. It can help to decrease or even eliminate the excess bacteria that surround acne breakouts. Finally, the aforementioned study showed that the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD oil play an important role in acne prevention. This works by keeping pro-inflammatory cytokine levels to a normal level.

The study came to the conclusion that CBD is a “promising therapeutic agent” in the treatment of acne. These results are applicable to both facial and body acne.

CBD and Acne Scars

A combination of enlarged pimples and picking of the skin commonly leads to scarring from acne. This is due to the disruptions that occur beneath the surface of the skin. A study in the journal La Clinica Terapeutica seems to indicate that CBD can help to smooth and reduce the appearance of acne scars.

In this study, 20 participants with demonstrated scars applied CBD ointment to the affected region twice each day for three months. There was a significant improvement noted in skin elasticity and hydration at the end of the study. The results of this study are quite promising.

Treating Acne with CBD

There are lots of ways to use CBD for treating various conditions. CBD is commonly given in tinctures, capsules, topicals, vaping and edibles. When it comes to treating acne, it makes sense that topical methods of use such as a CBD cream like the one found here, penguincbd/products/cbd-cream, are your best bet.

Acne is a skin condition. CBD can penetrate the skin quite easily. It then builds up in the sebaceous glands, helping to control the excess oil production that can prompt acne production. You can get CBD topicals in lotions, salves, creams, and balms. Products that contain hemp seed oil are particularly good for treating acne due to the amino acids found in hemp seed.

As you can see, CBD has been shown in various studies to be useful in the treatment of acne and the reduction of acne scarring. Cannabidiol’s interaction with the endocannabinoid system is the science behind many of CBD’s medicinal benefits. This is no exception when it comes to getting rid of acne. So, if you’re looking for a more natural remedy for your breakouts, CBD cream, or other topical applications may be a good choice for you.

The 9 Best CBD Oils for Acne in 2022

If you have struggled with acne, the thought of putting an oil on your face is probably sending you reeling right now.

Featured CBD Brands:

  • Best Overall: Kanibi– Full Spectrum CBD Oil
  • Best Value:Blue Moon Hemp– CBD Tinctures
  • Best THC-Free:Kat’s Naturals

It’s a well-known fact that overproduction of sebum, the skin’s natural oil, is one of the leading causes of acne. And because of that, those with oily skin types or naturally larger pores tend to be more acne prone. But, there are people of all skin types that get acne, and we’ve been treating oil as the enemy for a long time.

CBD oil has been shown in multiple studies to naturally and effectively curb inflammation and balance irregular hormones, two top causes of acne. CBD oil also provides powerful anxiety relief, which can prevent stress-related breakouts. But the most potent way CBD oil prevents acne is by inhibiting the production of sebum. Unlike many conventional treatments, CBD oil is natural, free from harsh chemicals or toxins, and (apart from infrequently reported drowsiness) has no side effects. In fact, high-quality CBD oil products tend to include an array of beneficial vitamins, antioxidants, and skin-smoothing agents. CBD oil can fight acne directly when topically applied, or help to prevent breakouts when ingested.

Treatments like Proactiv, Oxy, Stridex, and even prescription treatments can be drying, irritating, or target the symptoms instead of the cause. Drying the skin leads to more oil production, irritation leads to inflammation in the pores and can cause cystic acne. It feels like a never-ending cycle, a losing battle… but, CBD oil is your chance to start treating your acne from the inside out. You can read our detailed methodology or jump right in to our ranking of the best CBD Oils for Acne.

Table of Contents

  • The 9 Best CBD Oils for Acne
    • 1. Endoca
    • 2. CBD For Life
    • 3. Cannabidiol Life
    • 4. ImBue Botanicals
    • 5. HempLife Today
    • 6. Charlotte’s Web
    • 7. Apothecanna
    • 8. The CBD Skincare Co.
    • 9. cbdMD

    The 9 Best CBD Oils for Acne

    1. Endoca

    Endoca is an amazing company that is dedicated to wellness in many ways. Not only do they pride themselves in making incredible hemp products, but they also have outreach programs, a meditation center, and are dedicated to 100% sustainable manufacturing. The UN has awarded Endoca for its application of 100% clean technology in all its manufacturing processes. Endoca is the first pharmaceutical company to produce 100% organic active pharmaceutical ingredients, and that is something that makes them a standout in not just the CBD industry, but across the board.

    Endoca’s CBD is 100% organic, non-GMO, GMP certified and tested by third-party labs to ensure you’re getting the best possible product. The product that we’re recommending from Endoca is the Hemp Salve.

    The Hemp Salve the Endoca makes is composed of such high-quality and safe ingredients that you could eat it! (Of course, we’d rather have their peppermint CBD Chewing Gum for that.) This salve is made from CBD, coconut oil, beeswax, cannabis seed oil, lemon peel oil, citral, vanilla, and vitamin E. The vanilla gives it a soft scent without the use of artificial fragrances or irritants.

    This is a soothing salve that provides instant relief from dryness, irritation, inflammation, and more. One amazing thing about it is that it is also safe to use on broken skin, as many acne products are not. This is great for those painful, angry breakouts, flaky red skin, and just keeping your skin healthy and hydrated. CBD helps block the production of sebum and pumps your skin full of antioxidants to fight signs of aging. Coconut oil, lemon, and vitamin E all nurture the skin as well, promoting even tone.

    2. CBD For Life

    CBD For Life is dedicated to making innovative CBD-infused pain management and beauty products that feel luxurious and deliver amazing results. Their products are specially formulated to combine CBD oil with other natural ingredients that will help fight off pain, inflammation, and aging while keeping skin rejuvenated and vibrant. CBD For Life’s products are 95% naturally derived and are free of GMOs, parabens, phthalates, formaldehyde, artificial coloring and are never tested on animals.

    All of the products that they sell retail for $35.00 or less, which is an amazing thing. The company cares about the accessibility of their products and believes wholeheartedly in what CBD can do for customers like you. They believe in CBD as the new super beauty ingredient that it is, and we believe right there with them.

    One thing we’d like to highlight is that CBD For Life is proudly a woman-owned and operated company, something the BestCBDOils loves and supports. Business is a realm often dominated by men, and we always want to lift and support companies that are breaking down that statistic. The product we’ve featured CBD For Life for today is their Pure CBD Face Cream.

    This cream has a very soft texture, is free of all artificial colors, phthalates, parabens, GMOs, and formaldehyde, and is packed with skin-loving ingredients. Aloe, olive, orange peel, cucumber extract, and avocado oil all help pack nutrients into your skin and keep it bright. The CBD helps stop inflammation, works with the lavender to calm it down, and has antibacterial properties to keep zits at bay.

    The reviews for this product state that it has a rich feel and is very hydrating without feeling greasy or slippery at all. This is a straightforward moisturizing cream that is going to help your skin feel happy, healthy, and clear.

    3. Cannabidiol Life

    Cannabidiol Life’s products are made from organically grown industrial hemp that is sourced right here in America. The company uses a cradling extraction method, with organic ethanol. The absolutely pure CBD oil is then enriched with a ton of synergistic ingredients. They offer a broad range of products, but we have ranked them here for their Radiant Facial Serum.

    This serum contains 100% pure full-spectrum hemp extract along with a ton of organic ingredients that your skin loves. These include argan oil, jojoba oil, rosehip seed oil, evening primrose oil, buckthorn seed oil, rose absolute, tamanu, frankincense, sandalwood, carrot seed oil, and vitamin E.

    The Facial Serum targets anti-aging, but don’t let the name fool you; those same ingredients are potent players that are perfect to have on the front line in defense of your skin. Proper moisture fights off sebum, as does CBD oil found in the hemp extract. Argan oil and jojoba oil both help moisture penetrate the skin, delivering vitamins and fighting off bacteria. CBD will also help fight irritation and inflammation, effects that are bolstered by evening primrose, and vitamin E. Vitamin E partners with CBD to be a powerful solution for fighting scars, evening your skin tone, and more.

    Many reviews boast about the power of this serum, but the company offers a sample size so you can try it yourself, risk-free.

    4. ImBue Botanicals

    ImBue Botanicals is a company that controls every aspect of its CBD production. The company’s non-GMO source hemp is sustainably grown, without chemical pesticides or herbicides, in Colorado at high altitudes, where more UV exposure yields higher concentrations of CBD. This hemp is then subjected to low-pressure, low-temperature processing to yield full-spectrum extracts rich in antioxidants and omega 3s and omega 6s.

    All products are third-party lab tested testing for potency, residual solvents, and microbial contaminants. ImBue has a large array of skincare products made from CBD, one of the broadest selections on the market today. Their selection includes lip balm, eye cream, facial cream, and a CBD salve and body lotion that come in strengths of 200 mg or 400 mg. The best product, we’ve found, that they offer for fighting acne is Lifted By Em·Body 100MG Premium CBD Facial Cream.

    This sumptuous cream works at the cellular level to restore skin and features a wide range of potent acne fighting agents, including 100 mg sebum-curbing CBD, healing vitamin E oil, soothing aloe vera, mint, exfoliating lactic acid, antibacterial rosemary, anti-inflammatory arnica, and barrier-boosting shea butter, among others. An independent reviewer on Leafly.com writes, “After a week of wearing this cream every night, I, a very cystic acne-prone person, did not have any breakouts and had noticeably softer skin in the morning.”

    5. HempLife Today

    Hemplife Today’s high-potency CBD products are very competitively priced and can be purchased in larger quantities for additional savings. All of Hemplife Today’s “CannazALL” products start with organic, non-GMO, first-cut, purpose-grown (not industrial) hemp grown without the use of chemical pesticides under a Colorado Department of Agriculture Certified Hemp growing program, and sourced in Northern Europe. The source hemp is subjected to CO2 extraction, and a proprietary “NanoTech Infusion Process” that re-infuses whole-plant Terpenes, Phytocannabinoids, and plant Botanicals, maximizing the “Entourage Effect”.

    Hemplife Today is so confident in their products that they offer a 30-day money-back guarantee of satisfaction, which builds our confidence as well. This shows that they care about getting products that work into the hands of those who can truly use them.

    We ranked them for their CannazALL Topical CBD Salve. This thick, rich balm contains 400 mg sebum-reducing CBD oil as well as other great organic ingredients. This is a 100% organic product, which is hard to find in the realm of skin care. Other ingredients include coconut oil, beeswax, lavender oil, and eucalyptus oil. This salve will protect your skin, moisturize it with the easily-absorbed coconut oil, and will help keep it calm and bacteria free with the lavender and eucalyptus.

    6. Charlotte’s Web

    Charlotte’s Web is both the name of a proprietary CBD strain and the company which breeds, grows and processes this “gold standard” hemp plant. All of the source hemp used by Charlotte’s Web is sustainably and organically cultivated in Colorado, with the company overseeing the entire process from seed to shelf.

    Charlotte’s Web uses a broad-spectrum extraction process, which retains the majority of plan compounds to maximize the Entourage Effect (the capacity of hemp compounds to enhance the therapeutic effects of CBD). Along with high-quality CBD, all Charlotte’s Web products include a variety of phytochemicals, such as phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. In the topical treatment of acne, these additional vitamins and antioxidants are beneficial healing and protecting the skin.

    Their best product to add to your current skin care regimen is the Hemp Infused Cream they’ve created. This is 100% Vegan product that contains 300 mg of hemp extract per ounce, so it is packed with the CBD oil that will balance, nourish, and restore your skin. Other ingredients include vitamin B5, aloe, coconut oil, and shea butter to help support revitalization. Apricot kernel oil also works to condition your skin.

    This light but creamy moisturizer is noncomedogenic and comes in scented and unscented varieties, which is perfect for those of you who have a little bit more sensitive skin. All ingredients are sustainably grown, non-GMO, gluten free, BPA free, and cruelty-free. The scented variety contains no synthetic fragrances, just all natural essential oils.

    7. Apothecanna

    Apothecanna is an all-natural body care company that is dedicated to spreading the wisdom of traditional plant medicine. Every ingredient they include is considered an active ingredient, they don’t use anything that doesn’t have a direct benefit for its use. All of their ingredients are organic, sustainably sourced, non-GMO, and free of parabens, fillers, and more. Apothecanna doesn’t use any artificial ingredients. Ever.

    The products made by Apothecanna are diverse and all of them are uniquely amazing. However, we have featured this company for its Everyday Face & Body Oil. This is a moisturizer that has nothing but five-star reviews. It is a medium weight oil with CBD to relieve stress and inflammation, cedar because it is rich in antioxidants and helps smooth the skin, geranium to help heal scarring and clear your pores, and mandarin because it moisturizes and brightens the skin.

    The amazing oils in this moisturizer give it a soft woodsy scent and it will leave your skin feeling soft and supple. This is great for acne-prone skin because it will keep your skin properly hydrated while staving off oil production and keeping your pores clear. On top of all of that, it is working to fully heal your skin. We couldn’t recommend it more.

    8. The CBD Skincare Co.

    The CBD Skincare Company is dedicated to taking care of its customers’ bodies from the outside in with their incredible CBD-infused products. They offer only the world’s finest organic soaps, face washes, lotions, and more. This company uses products that were scientifically formulated and developed with all natural full spectrum CBD oil to ensure the highest level of potency.

    Their products not only help nourish your skin and hair, but they also provide a potent delivery of CBD that will help you feel refreshed as well. The company uses only pure CBD oil, organic ingredients, and all natural fragrances, harnessing the pure power of nature without any additives or unnecessary contaminants.

    While all of their products are amazing, we selected this one for acne because it is perfect for soothing angry irritated skin, no matter where it may be on your body. As troublesome as acne is on your face, we know that it can also pop up in undesirable areas like your chest, or back. The Shea Honey Oat Body Bar is the perfect answer to that.

    This is a soothing bar of soap infused with all natural full spectrum CBD, as well as sunflower or safflower oil, coconut oil, palm oil, shea butter, oats, honey, and rosemary extract. This soap will help draw redness out of the skin, fight bacteria, and keep your skin from feeling irritated as it is trying to heal. It is also designed to moisturize your skin as you clean it, protecting you from over-drying.

    9. cbdMD

    cbdMD is a company that boasts the best prices per milligram on the market today, which makes their products incredibly accessible to people. They grow their own strain of industrial hemp to be incredibly rich in CBD, completely organic, non-GMO, and free of any contaminants. They are completely in control of every aspect of their production, and offer third-party lab results to back up their claims.

    All of their products are organic, vegan, grown in America, and completely free of gluten, GMOs, pesticides, animal products, and so on. Their broad spectrum cannabinoid-infused products are some of the purest on the market, guaranteed. The product we’ve featured them for is not for acne, in fact, it is to help with muscle recovery for athletes, but it is so full of amazing ingredients that we included it in our ranking of the best CBD products for acne.

    The product we’re talking about is their CBD Inflammation Recovery Cream. This cream was created to be used as a topical analgesic for acute pain, but the rich moisturizing cream is full of things like arnica, which stimulates white blood cell creation, vitamin B6 to fight inflammation, and more. It also contains pink grapefruit peel oil, chamomile oil, lemon peel oil, lavender oil, and so much more. The essential oil blend in this product will help fight off inflammation and can penetrate deep into pores to fight bacteria, oil production, redness, and more. We absolutely recommend you give it a try!

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CBD Oil

CBD cannabidiol is one of over a 100 cannabinoids or phytocannabinoids. (naturally occurring cannabinoids from plants) “CBD is extracted from cannabis plants and processed as an isolate or as a full-spectrum oil combined with other related cannabinoids. CBD oils made with full-spectrum extracts are thought to have superior therapeutic effects versus cannabidiol-only oil. [4]

CBD can be refereed to as: (amounts vary greatly)

Hemp Extract

Phytocannabinoid

Hemp oil Does NOT contain CBD

There are two common strains of cannabis in use today — hemp and marijuana. Hemp is a cannabis plant that contains less than 0.3% of THC; marijuana has more than 0.3%. CBD products for pets are typically sourced from hemp.” [4] “CBD is thought to have many therapeutic properties, but unlike cannabis’s other main compound THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), it doesn’t get users high.” [5] THC as found in marijuana can be toxic for dogs and cats so its important that any CBD product contain less than 0.3% THC. For comparison a 0.56 oz (16 g) edible cookie made from cannabis (marijuana) contains about 10 mg of THC which makes one cookie toxic for pets. [6] If your dog has ingested marijuana, call your veterinarian immediately or the Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) at (888) 426-4435.

There have been published studies on CBD use in dogs for osteoarthritis and epilepsy with promising results but for anxiety there are only anecdotal reports to date. [1] [2] Dr. Rob Silver, a veterinarian, herbalist and pioneer in the field reports “one of the most common applications for CBD is for anxiety and behavior issues in dogs. It seems to work very well at low dosages for hyper dogs.” [4]

If you live in a state that has legalized CBD, there’s nothing to stop you from giving it to your pet on your own. But experts say it’s a good idea to talk with your vet first.” [3] CBD does interact with some drugs and can have side affects so it is recommended to consult your veterinarian before giving it to your pet. Casara Andre, D.V.M., founder of Veterinary Cannabis Education & Consulting, “says, CBD can interact with medications, including those used by vets. Also, there’s less oversight and testing of products marketed for pets, and there have been reports of animals harmed by contaminated or spoiled CBD products, she says. There have also been reports of animals that seemed to get high from products, possibly because the formulations had more THC than was claimed. (CBD-only products are supposed to contain less than 0.3 percent THC.)” [5]

Q&A Cannabis and hemp products for pets with Dr. Robert Silver

Buyer Beware!

Buyer beware CBD products have been referred to as the wild west. “It can be hard to pick the best CBD oil because product labels often don’t list what they contain and, even then they do, many have been shown to be wrong.” CBD products are unregulated and you may not be getting any CBD in the product you purchase and some have major health concerns which could be dangerous. (See Fox 11 video) “cannabis plants readily absorb heavy metals, pesticides, and other potentially harmful chemicals that may be in the soil or water” [8] CBD products have also been found to be contaminated with a dangerous synthetic cannabinoid. [9]

Our tests of CBD products revealed that two products contained less CBD than listed and one contained significantly more. Actual doses ranged from just 1.3 mg to 22.3 mg, and we found that you can’t rely on listed amounts of “cannabinoids” to tell you how much CBD is in a product.” https://www.consumerlab.com/reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/

A recent analysis of 29 CBD products for pets reflected:

“that only 10 of the 29 products were within 90–110% of the label claims regarding cannabinoid concentrations”

“Nine of the products were over 110% of the label claim”

“and 10 were under 90% of the label claim”

“two of these containing no cannabinoids.” (CBD)

“Heavy metal contamination was found in 4/29 products, with lead being the most prevalent contaminant”

8 Best Krill Oils for Dogs in 2022 – Reviews & Top Picks

Fish oil has been a popular supplement for pets and humans alike for a long time, though the type of fish oil that is best has always been up for debate. While people swear by cod liver oil, others argue that wild Alaskan salmon oil is the only acceptable fish oil.

Krill fish oil slowly growing in popularity, and it’s for a good reason. Krill is naturally toxin and mercury-free, so it’s safer and cleaner than other fish. However, it can be difficult to find the right krill oil supplement for your dog.

There are many products available that have different benefits and features that may influence your decision. Thankfully, we’ve done the hard work for you. We found the highest quality krill oil supplements and made a list of our in-depth reviews. Here is our list of the Best Krill Oil for Dogs this year:

A Quick Comparison of Our Favorites

The 8 Best Krill Oil for Dogs – Reviews 2022

1. NaturVet Hemp Seed, Krill, & Salmon Oil – Best Overall

NaturVet Hemp Seed, Krill, & Salmon Oil is a dog and cat supplement that provides a healthy and natural source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. It contains antioxidants, too, to help ensure your dog’s coat and skin not only look good but feel good.

The ingredients also help maintain good bone, joint, and muscle health while improving their respiratory condition. It can prove very useful for dogs that suffer from allergies, or struggle to breathe during the summer months. It is competitively priced, easy to feed by adding a teaspoon to meals, and contains natural ingredients. If you’re looking to supplement an existing diet, or are looking for a method to improve your dog’s skin and fur condition, we found NaturVet to be the best overall krill oil for dogs, especially because of its natural ingredients. The only real issue is that the oil combines fish oil and hemp oil, which gives a somewhat pungent aroma.

  • Natural ingredients
  • Packed with fatty acids and antioxidants
  • Easy to feed
  • Smells

2. Grizzly Pet Products Krill Antioxidant – Best Value

Grizzly Pet Products 00831 Krill Liquid Antioxidant is a liquid krill oil supplement for dogs that need an extra nutrient boost in their diets. Made with wild Antarctic krill, this liquid supplement has a natural taste that your dog will love.

This liquid krill oil is rich in Omega-3 and Omega-6, which are essential nutrients for your dog’s immune system. It helps nourish the skin and coat to prevent dry skin, giving your dog the relief from constant itching. This oil is also less expensive per dose than other fish oil supplements, saving you money in the long run.

However, it does have a strong fishy odor, which can be a dealbreaker for some people. The pump can also be hard to use, which is a pain for liquid-based supplements. For these reasons, we kept it out of our #1 spot. Otherwise, we find the Grizzly Pet Products 00831 Krill Liquid Antioxidant to be the best value krill oil for dogs for the money.

  • Made with wild Antarctic Krill
  • Rich in Omegas 3 and 6
  • Help nourish skin and coat
  • Less expensive per dose
  • Strong fishy odor
  • The airlock pump can be hard to use

3. K9 Pro Krill Fish Oil – Premium Choice

K9 Pro Krill Fish Oil are premium krill oil supplements in a soft, chewable form to make it easier to dose. They’re made with pure Antarctic krill fish oil, which is more nutrient-dense than other fish oil supplements.

These krill oil chews are rich in Omega-3 fatty acids to help heal dry and irritated skin, so your dog won’t spend hours scratching for relief. It’s also got less fish odor than liquid fish oil supplements, making these chews a convenient and mess-free option. They’re also made with tasty chicken and cheese flavors, which is great for dogs that tend to be picky.

However, these krill oil soft chews are on the expensive side per dose, so they may not be a great value if you have a medium or large dog. The flavorings can also be to rich for some dogs, causing indigestion in dogs with sensitive stomachs. For these issues, we kept it out of our Top 2. Otherwise, we recommend trying K9 Pro Krill Fish Oil if you’re looking for a premium option.

  • Made with pure Antarctic krill fish oil
  • Rich in Omega-3 to help heal dry skin
  • Less fish odor than liquid oil
  • Tasty chicken and cheese flavor
  • On the expensive side
  • Can be too rich for some dogs

4. Dr. Mercola Antarctic Krill Oil Liquid

Dr. Mercola 60020 Antarctic Krill Oil is a liquid krill fish oil supplement in an airlock pump bottle that gives around 100mg doses per pump. This krill oil supplement is made with sustainably sourced Antarctic krill that contain no mercury or other dangerous toxins, while also being more nutritious than other fish oils.

It also contains essential fatty acids, which are necessary for your dog’s overall heart and brain health and wellness. It also helps nourish the skin and coat from the inside, so it may help with itching and other common skin conditions.

Although the bottle design is unique, the faulty pump jams way too easily and leaks krill oil everywhere. It has a strong fishy odor because it’s a liquid supplement, but it seems stronger than other brands.

It’s also more expensive than other kill oil per dose, which can add up quickly for bigger dogs. If you have a small dog and don’t mind the stubborn pump, Dr. Mercola 60020 Antarctic Krill Oil Liquid can be a good option.

  • Sustainably sourced krill
  • Contains essential fatty acids
  • Help nourish skin and coat
  • Pump jams and leaks
  • Strong fishy odor
  • More expensive than other krill oil

5. Zesty Paws Krill Fish Oil for Dogs

Zesty Paws Krill Fish Oil for Dogs is a krill oil supplement to give to your dog daily for skin, coat, and immune system support. It’s made with a blend of krill oil, krill meal, and hemp for multiple health benefits and essential nutrients.

These come in a convenient bite-sized treat to make it easier to dose, with no messy liquids to handle. They’re also on the less expensive side than other krill oil supplements, saving you money in the long run. While they’re not as messy as liquids, these have an intense smell for a chewable that may not be pleasant to handle.

The bacon flavor of the Zesty Paws Krill Oil is not impressive, with some dogs not liking the taste. It may also be too rich for some dogs, which can lead to indigestion. For higher quality, tastier krill oil, we recommend trying Five Paws Krill Oil Chews first.

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Healing Naturally

CBD Dog Health is proud to be a pet wellness company, creating holistic products specifically with your pet in mind. Our range of Full Spectrum CBD for dogs, cats and horses includes a selection of CBD oil infused tinctures and salves for pets, carefully formulated with all-natural ingredients, essential oils and full spectrum cannabinoid blends. In addition, we guarantee potency and purity through third-party lab testing.

“I have used other CBD for dogs products out there and this by far surpasses any other I have tried!” – Reyna T.

CBD Guide Get Your FREE CBD GUIDE

Get Your FREE CBD GUIDE

Best Sellers

Each of our products are carefully formulated to target common ailments in pets. With our growing line of CBD for dogs, cats and horses, there’s something to benefit every pet. Here are some of our top selling CBD for dogs, cats and horses:

HEAL: CBD Oil For Dogs

EASE: CBD Oil for Dogs

CALM: CBD Oil for Dogs

REMEDY: Tumors, Cysts, and Infections for Dogs

Trusted By Veterinarians

We have recommended cbd for dogs and pets for years but didn’t think it was helping at all. We have been recommending cbd dog health products for a year now and definitely see the results! We use CBD for dogs with anxiety, cancer, arthritis, allergies, and Cushings disease.

Dr. Carlson Veterinarian Shop Now

We recommend your CBD for dogs and pets products to every patient we see. We treat a lot of senior pets and your products help with all their symptoms! Arthritis, anxiety are greatly improved. Warts, bumps, scratches disappear.

Dr. Rowan Veterinarian Shop Now

I’ve never had CBD for dogs products work well for anxiety before until I found CALM! The CBD Dog Health products are potent and effective, great for reducing inflammation and pain (and anxiety as well)! I love using them with my patients.

Dr. Erika Halle Veterinarian Shop Now

After searching for years for the right CBD for dogs and pets product, we are so grateful to find one that works. CBD Dog Health is palatable, effective and an all around outstanding product. Our pets are suffering from inflammation that manifests in many ways and CBD Dog Heath products help down regulate that inflammation.

Dr. Erin Holder Veterinarian Shop Now

CALM Full Spectrum CBD

Help your pet’s anxiety!

CBD is a great option for anxiety. Clinical research shows CBD can contribute to the expulsion of aversive memories. Additionally, CBD can mimic serotonin by binding and activating the body’s serotonin receptors. Often called the ‘happy’ chemical, these serotonin receptors are responsible for emotional balance.

EASE Full Spectrum CBD

Help your pet’s pain!

CBD manages pain by altering the way the central nervous system communicates the sensation of pain to the brain. For instance, when an injury occurs, the damaged tissue signals inflammatory and immune cells to begin repairing the damage. These cells release chemicals and proteins to activate nerve receptors. These signals move up the spinal cord and to the brain, causing us, or in this case our pets, to feel pain. CBD can be used to reduce pain safely and effectively, by weakening these pain signals.

Help your pet’s allergies!

Allergy Duo

Primary benefits of using CBD for allergies in dogs include reducing inflammation from itchiness, modulating the body’s immune system and help improving the gut. We always recommend a tincture and salve to help both internally and externally for your pet’s allergies.

HEAL Full Spectrum CBD

Help your pet’s seizures!

CBD has been used by humans to treat seizures for years and has shown great success in both animals and people. In fact, in 2003, the U.S. government patented CBD as a neuroprotectant (despite the U.S. prohibition on cannabis). Because of the rise of hemp-derived CBD for pets, studies focusing on the effects of CBD for dogs’ seizures is being studied now more than ever. Animal research indicates that the anti-seizure effects of CBD may result from reducing the excitability of neurons by acting on two receptor groups called GPR55 and TRPV1 receptors.

Need help with CBD dosage?

CBD Dog Health tinctures are developed with a 1mL dose containing the average CBD dosage that will be effective for most pets. Based on research and our experience, this is a benchmark dosage that works for a majority of cases, however, despite common misconceptions, there is no accurate CBD dosage calculator. Dosing CBD oil for dogs, cats, and pets has little to do with size and weight, and sensitivity to CBD can range greatly and even change over time with age or chronic illness. This is why finding the right CBD dosage for dogs, cats and pets is best determined by taking into account the unique needs and health status of each individual pet.

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Biggest Savings

Are you just getting started with CBD for your dog? Then bundle and save 15% (plus free shipping!) with our CBD Power Duo and CBD Allergy Duo, each bundle includes two incredible holistic products to support your pet’s health, with all the incredible advantages of our quality Full Spectrum CBD to help them live their best lives.

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Meet Your Founder

It’s no secret that I love animals. To see me on my rescue farm, Fire Flake Farm, is to see me in my element. Looking in on my furry and feathered and very joyful family of dogs, chickens, geese, and pigs, you would never suspect that my pets and I were once full of aches, pains, and anxiety.

When I was first diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, one of my biggest fears was being in too much pain to keep going on adventures with my dogs. Determined to find an alternative to toxic pharmaceuticals, I discovered medical cannabis, and that’s when everything changed⎯⎯for me and my animals.

By 2016, I became one of the first graduates of the Medical Cannabis program at University of Vermont. I spent the next two years searching for ethical, safe hemp farmers in Colorado and finding trusted partners who helped me launch CBD Dog Health in 2018.

Since then I’ve continued my mission to educate pet parents and veterinarians on the benefits of cannabis as medicine. Today, I am so proud to share that I am pain free, along with all the animals on my rescue farm, and all without any toxic medications, thanks to this miraculous plant. Cannabis medicine has changed my life and my pets lives- ask me how it can change yours.

Angela Ardolino
Founder

Why Buy CBD Dog Health Products?

When it comes to CBD for dogs and pets, not all products are of equal quality. With so many CBD brands to choose from, here’s a few reasons why our products stand above the rest.

  • Our Full-Spectrum Hemp Extracts come from high-quality hemp, grown organically in the U.S. without the use of herbicides, pesticides or chemical fertilizers.
  • Our tinctures and salves are formulated CBD for dogs, cats and horses, from a Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, which is legal in all 50 states, and is regulated to contain less than 0.3% THC.
  • Our Full Spectrum CBD for dogs, cats and horses are organic, non-GMO, and 100% human grade.
  • Each of our formulas contain a Full Spectrum of active cannabinoids such as CBD, CBG, CBN, CBDA, and a variety of naturally occurring terpenes.
  • Our Full Spectrum Hemp Extracts are extracted using supercritical CO2 extraction from the flower, with no toxic chemical solvents or contaminants.
  • Our full spectrum CBD for dogs, cats and horses products are manufactured with 100% food-grade ingredients.
  • Our products are free of synthetic glycol and other chemicals, which can degrade the potency of CBD for dogs and pets, and potentially be toxic.
  • Every product and every batch of our CBD for dogs, cats and horses is tested by a third-party laboratory to ensure potency, all products must contain the correct amount of cannabinoids, and purity, with no unwanted contaminants.
  • CBD Dog Health products are available in retailers around the country, as well as available for home delivery to all 50 states.

Is CBD for Dogs, Cats and Horses Safe?

Absolutely! But we still want to tell you why!

You might have heard the terms CBD for dogs, CBD extract, hemp extract, or cannabis oil used interchangeably. For the most part, these all refer to one thing: cannabidiol, also known as CBD.

Our company uses Full Spectrum Hemp Extract in all of our CBD for dogs, cats and horses, tinctures and topical salves. Studies are continually being conducted on the many uses of full-spectrum hemp extract CBD for dogs, cats and other animals. CBD for dogs and pets has been shown to not only be extremely safe, but also very effective on animals. One thing is clear: CBD for dogs, cats and horses is a natural, safe way to manage a variety of ailments.

CBD is completely non-psychoactive, meaning that CBD for dogs and pets will not make your pet “high”. Clinical tests from Colorado State University have also shown that CBD for dogs is both safe and non-addictive, it’s also impossible to overdose on CBD. There have also been studies on using CBD for dogs which shows that CBD for dogs can be effective without the harmful side effects that come with prescribed pharmaceuticals.

CBD Oil for Dogs & Cats – resolveCBD Pets

We formulated our CBD Oil for dogs and cats specifically with our pets in mind. We use natural, pet-grade organic ingredients with a broad spectrum, hemp extract. As a result, pets have no trouble consuming our CBD hemp oil for dogs and cats with his or her favourite food or treats.

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How much CBD should dogs take?

Refer to this CBD dosage chart for pets for suggested dosing for your dog, cat, or other pet but always consult with your vet for professional guidance.

Small Animals
Weight ml
200mg Tincture 0-10 lbs 0-0.3
10-20 lbs 0.3-0.6
20-30 lbs 0.6-0.9
600mg Tincture 0-10 lbs Not Recommended
10-20 lbs Not Recommended
20-30 lbs Not Recommended
Medium Animals
Weight ml
200mg Tincture 30-40 lbs 1-1.2
40-50 lbs 1.2-1.5
50-60 lbs 1.5-1.8
600mg Tincture 30-40 lbs 0.3-0.4
40-50 lbs 0.4-0.5
50-60 lbs 0.5-0.6
Large Animals
Weight ml
200mg Tincture 60-80 lbs Not Recommended
80-100 lbs Not Recommended
100-120 lbs Not Recommended
600mg Tincture 60-80 lbs 0.6-0.8
80-100 lbs 0.8-1
100-120 lbs 1-1.2
1000mg Tincture 60-80 lbs 0.4-0.5
80-100 lbs 0.5-0.6
100-120 lbs 0.6-0.7
Extra Large Animals
Weight ml
200mg Tincture 120-140 lbs Not Recommended
140-160 lbs Not Recommended
160-180+ Not Recommended
600mg Tincture 120-140 lbs 1.2-1.4
140-160 lbs 1.4-1.6
160-180+ lbs 1.6-1.8
1000mg Tincture 120-140 lbs 0.7-0.8
140-160 lbs 0.8-1
160-180+ lbs 1-1.1

RESOLVE CBD PETS AT A GLANCE

Organic ingredients

Healthy carrier oils

Locally grown hemp

Pet-grade

Broad spectrum

  • Description
  • Ingredients
  • Directions
  • Disclaimer

Description

What is CBD oil for dogs & cats?

We formulated our CBD oil for dogs & cats specifically with our pets in mind. We use natural, pet-grade organic ingredients with a broad spectrum, hemp extract. As a result, pets have no trouble consuming our CBD hemp oil for dogs and cats with his or her favourite food or treats. Each bottle contains 30ml of oil. Our CBD products are broad spectrum, extracts derived from Canadian grown hemp, containing zero to trace, negligible amounts of THC. As a result, all of our CBD Pets oils are considered non-psychoactive and safe for daily use by your furry friend.

Benefits of CBD oil for pets

Animals suffer the same ailments and discomforts as humans, from separation anxiety to arthritis and joint pain. Evidence suggests resolveCBD Pets Oil may help alleviate these symptoms so your dog or cat can live a healthier, fuller life. Read more here.

How to give CBD oil to your pet

resolveCBD Pets Oil is available in 3 different flavours to appeal to all animals. Add the desired amount to your pet’s food once or twice a day as needed. Consult our dosage chart above if you aren’t sure of how much to administer CBD oil to your pet, or live chat with us if you have any questions.

Can I give resolveCBD Oil for humans to my pet?

We recommend giving your pet resolveCBD Pets Oil, rather than our classic CBD oil products. That’s because resolveCBD for pets is formulated in three pet friendly flavours, rather than peppermint oil, which may taste unpleasant or be toxic to dogs or cats. Additionally, we offer three concentrations of pet oils so you can ease your pet into the world of CBD slowly and carefully.

What is the difference between resolveCBD Pets Oil 200mg, 600mg and 1000mg?

We offer three concentrations of pets oil products to suit the varying needs of dogs and cats of different sizes and weights. Our 200mg oil contains

6.7mg CBD per 1mL dose and is more suitable for small to medium animals such as Corgis, Dachsunds, Chihuahuas, and smaller house cats. Our 600mg oil contains

20mg CBD per 1mL dose and is more suitable for large to extra large animals like German Shepherds, Labradors, and Golden Retrievers. Our 1000mg oil contains

30mg CBD per 1mL dose and is more suitable for large to extra large animals experiencing severe ailments or anxiety.

Ingredients

Full Ingredients:

  • Salmon: Broad spectrum CBD extracted from Canadian-grown hemp, Organic cold pressed hemp seed oil, Organic MCT (medium-chain triglyceride) oil, Wild Alaskan salmon oil
  • Bacon: Broad spectrum CBD extracted from Canadian-grown hemp, Organic cold pressed hemp seed oil, Organic MCT (medium-chain triglyceride) oil, Natural bacon flavouring
  • Natural: Organic MCT oil and broad spectrum hemp-derived CBD

Directions

Mix the desired amount of oil into your companion’s favourite food or treats. It’s as simple as that. See our Pets Dosing Chart below for suggested servings.

Disclaimer

Information and products presented by resolveCBD are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or ailment, nor is it intended to be a substitute or alternative for professional medical advice. Always consult with a licensed professional regarding medical treatment or possible interactions with prescribed drugs. Products are intended to be used as directed, by individuals who are 19 years of age or older.

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disney arrests woman for cbd oil possesion

North Carolina Woman Sues Disney World over CBD Arrest

A North Carolina woman is filing a lawsuit for negligent and intentional infliction of emotional distress after she says she was arrested for possession of CBD oil.

CBD oil is a major craze right now. If you haven’t heard about it, here’s what you need to know. While CBD is produced from the same plant that marijuana and THC are produced from, it contains none of the intoxicating effects of THC. Instead, proponents of CBD claim it helps with anxiety, digestion, sleeping, and a lot more. It is perfectly legal in all 50 states to purchase and use CBD oil.

However, confusion over what constitutes CBD and THC can create problems for those who use CBD legally.

The Arrest

Hester Burkhalter says she was placed under arrest by a sheriff’s deputy at Disney World in 2019. She was in possession of therapeutic CBD oil that was prescribed by her doctor to treat arthritis. Despite the fact that a field chemical test revealed that there was no THC in Mrs. Burkhalter’s therapeutic CBD oil, the sheriff arrested her, charging her with felony narcotics possession in the presence of her husband, daughter, and two adopted children.

Burkhalter, who was 69, must have really irked this police officer. When they brought her to the station, they performed a full body cavity search and held her on $2,000 bond. The charges against her were subsequently dropped. She has now filed a civil rights violation lawsuit against the sheriff’s department and a personal injury lawsuit against Disney World. She is seeking $6 million in compensatory damages and $12 million in punitive damages.

Will This Lawsuit Win?

There are a number of barriers facing Mrs. Burkhalter’s lawsuit. Firstly, you can’t sue the government for punitive damages or negligent infliction of emotional distress. These lawsuits would have to be filed directly against Disney.

Disney will say that they believed the police officer was in the right when they ejected her family from the park and charged her with drug possession.

Mrs. Burkhalter will be represented by civil rights attorney Ben Crump who has also filed lawsuits on behalf of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, two African-Americans killed by police. Burkhalter, however, is white.

What Actually Happened?

Dollars to donuts, Mrs. Burkhalter probably did not respond to the police officer in a way he deemed was satisfactorily complicit, so he threw the book at her, invented false charges, and subjected her to a body cavity search, which when groundless, is simply sexual assault.

So the woman’s case does have merit and should be pursued regardless of whether or not it results in an $18 million verdict. The idea that our government can do something like this to us just because a police officer doesn’t like our response is something that we should all be concerned about.

Woman Arrested for CBD Oil at Disney World Demands Apology

Arrest highlights disconnect between federal and state laws on CBD

By AP and Staff • Published May 14, 2019 • Updated on May 16, 2019 at 11:45 am

A 69-year-old great-grandmother is demanding an apology for her arrest at a Walt Disney World security checkpoint last month after a guard found CBD oil while searching her purse.

Hester Burkhalter has hired high-profile attorney Benjamin Crump, who represented Trayvon Martin’s family.

Crump said Tuesday that Disney World and the Orange County Sheriff’s Office “need to take responsibility for their actions” or he will file a lawsuit on the North Carolina woman’s behalf, alleging violations of her civil rights.

Burkhalter was arrested on April 15 and said she was detained for 15 hours over a bottle of CBD oil that her doctor in North Carolina recommended for arthritis. The oil was discovered when she put her purse on a table for inspection and tested positive for THC, according to an arrest report from the Orange County Sheriff’s Office.

“I was in shock,” Burkhalter told NBC News of her experience. “I don’t feel like I’ve done anything wrong at all.”

CBD oil, which is extracted from cannabis plants but doesn’t produce a high, has become a craze across the country since a 2018 federal law legalized industrial hemp.

NBC Miami has reported that the industry is expected to grow to $5.9 billion by the end of the year, up from $619 million in 2018, according to researchers with Brightfield Group, a CBD marketing research firm.

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But state laws vary with Florida in a special case of legal limbo. In the Sunshine State, CBD oil is, for now, only legal for sale with a prescription at certified Medical Marijuana Treatment Centers.

According to Burkhalter’s legal team, she provided a doctor’s note in response to her arrest and her doctor indicated the oil was legal in North Carolina.

Lawmakers in North Carolina, however, are in the process of trying to bring state laws in line with the 2018 federal law that removed hemp from a list of Schedule I drugs, said Jon Lanier, assistant general counsel with North Carolina’s Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

He said he thought law enforcement in his state was generally aware of changes with the federal law.

“Largely where we are right now is that the regulations are catching up to the production,” Lanier said.

NBC has requested comment from Florida’s Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for clarity on what out of state visitors who may have a doctor’s note or prescription should know.

The Orange County Sheriff’s Office has said in an emailed statement that Burkhalter’s arrest was lawful. Still, prosecutors dropped a drug charge against Burkhalter, saying it wasn’t suitable for prosecution.

A new law that passed Florida’s legislature this month would legalize CBD oil on July 1 and establish a framework for regulating the products. Florida’s new law, however, has not yet been signed by Gov. Ron DeSantis. NBC has reached out for comment on whether and when DeSantis planned to sign the measure.

For now, Florida’s Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services warns on its website that “CBD products being sold in Florida are unregulated, untested, and without standards on what consumers are putting into their bodies.”

The NBC 6 Investigators team earlier this year purchased 35 CBD products from seven different companies and took the samples to an accredited testing facility. Twenty of the samples had less than half of the amount of CBD advertised on the label. Some samples had no CBD at all.

Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services spokesperson Franco Ripple said the department is not sending cease and desist letters to businesses that sell CBD products but should the state’s regulatory program go into effect “it will allow us to test those products for consumer safety.”

The FDA, meanwhile, is planning a public hearing on May 31 as it considers regulations for how cannabis-derived products.

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cbd oil for sale in ohio

Best CBD Oil in Ohio

Are you trying to find stores that sell in CBD oil in Ohio? If so, check out the list we’ve put together below. You can also consider ordering the highest quality CBD products online.

As CBD becomes more and more widely used in our society, expect to find it in all major areas. In Ohio, we expect to see CBD oil products available in near bigger cities like Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Akron, and Dayton. As time goes on you’ll also be able to find it in places like Parma, Canton, Youngstown, Lorain, Hamilton, Springfield, Kettering, Elyria and Lakewood. Below, we’ve brought you a list of the top spots in Ohio to get CBD right now.

Is CBD Legal in Ohio?

Although recreational cannabis is still currently illegal in the state of Ohio, it has been drastically decriminalized in the past couple of years. Additionally, since 2016, cannabis and cannabis-extracted CBD have been made legal in Ohio for medical use. Eligible residents are those that both suffer from an approved medical condition and have obtained a medical recommendation for the use of medical marijuana or medical CBD that is extracted from a marijuana source. Marijuana-derived CBD is not currently approved for recreational use even if the THC concentration is within federal limits.

Industrial hemp cultivation and industrial hemp-derived products have been popular in Ohio for a few years, but did not receive concrete status to its legality until early 2019 when the cultivation of industrial hemp, the manufacturing of hemp and hemp-derived products and the possession or use of industrial hemp-derived products such as hemp-extracted CBD products was made officially legal. Now that Ohio’s law line up with federal law allowing hemp-derived CBD, the state’s largest cities such as Akron, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Columbus, have seen a large influx of specialty shops. Currently, the laws are still being evened out, and it is unclear if the pharmacy board has updated its policy to reflect the new legislation. In the meantime, we suggest purchasing your CBD from a licensed dispensary.

Best CBD Oil Shops in Ohio
CBD continues to expand across the country, and the Rust Belt is no different: Ohio offers a variety of options for CBD oil aficionados and novices alike. As of now, Columbus has at least two highly popular stores with equally popular and well-trained staff. (General rule of thumb: if the customer service is good, the product should follow suit.) From there, Toledo has an excellent alternative holistic medicine shop that offers non-psychotropic hemp products at an affordable price — again, with top-quality service. As CBD continues to grow, professionals expect stores to continue popping up around Ohio, especially in the south of the state where shops are less prominent. For now, Ohio residents outside of Columbus and Toledo can always order their favorite CBD products online; and for those interested in traveling out-of-state, Detroit and Pittsburgh each have some of the best CBD shops in the region.

CBD Oil Shops in Columbus
There are two places worth checking out in Columbus.

First is Great Vapes (1294 Bethel Rd, Columbus, OH 43220) conveniently located in North Columbus, not far from the Ohio State Airport. Here you’ll find a knowledgeable staff willing to answer all your CBD questions and guide you through the store’s extensive selection of high quality CBD oil products, plus e-cigarette equipment, vape accessories, custom e-juice and more. Unlike some places, Great Vapes places an emphasis on finding the perfect product for their customer, which accounting for price. As owner Kevin Zuccaro says, “Our objective is not geared toward maximizing the customers expense but getting the most out of their experience and investment.” That sounds like a good policy to us. Founded in 2014, Great Vapes came about after Kevin’s brother opened a CBD shop in Texas the year before. The more the merrier! Open seven days a week: Monday-Thursday 10AM-7PM; Friday-Saturday 10AM-8PM; Sunday 11AM-6PM.

Another place to check out is Smoke House (5439 Roberts Rd, Hilliard, OH 43026), just outside the Columbus I-270 perimeter and easily accessible. Like Great Vapes, Smoke House is another great CBD shop with a huge selection of wall-to-wall products and top-notch customer service. Additional products available include kratom, water pipes, shisha, e-cigarettes, e-juices, oil rigs, and other brand-name CBD products and paraphernalia. After opening in 2015, the shop has significantly expanded and grown in popularity throughout the Columbus area and beyond. Like many others, Smoke House’s owner decided to open up his own CBD oil shop almost immediately after his first experience, and customers say his passion shines throughout the store. Open seven days a week, with the best hours in Ohio: Monday-Saturday 10AM-10PM; Sunday 11AM-9PM.

CBD Oil Shops in Toledo
Toledo Hemp Center (815 Phillips Ave) is your one-stop CBD shop in the upper reaches of North Ohio. (Note the store has moved a 1/2 mile east of its original location.) Owner Kevin Spitler opened the shop after realizing the dearth of alternative holistic remedies in the area; since then, he’s been a man on a mission. Toledo Hemp Center is a leader in non-psychotropic hemp products and part of a grassroots effort to educate individuals and communities on the wide-ranging health benefits, which have so far been woefully and unfairly overlooked. Among its core values are: premium quality merchandise; courteous and knowledgable customer service; impeccable sales support; and integrity. Open Monday-Friday 10AM-6PM; Saturday 11am- 4pm.

CBD Shops in Cincinnati

Established in 1995, Hemptations (2034 Madison Rd, Cincinnati, OH 45208) is Cincinnati’s most popular spot for premium CBD oil, hemp, and other hemp-derived products, conveniently located on the north bank of the Ohio River. Emphasizing quality and selection, all products are individually sourced and curated, and much of the hemp stock is grown just across the river in Kentucky on federally recognized hemp fields. Prices are affordable, and if you need assistance navigating the store feel free to ask the friendly, knowledgeable staff. Open seven days a week; Monday-Saturday 11AM-7PM; Sunday 12PM-6PM.

Further up I-75, TNT Vape Shop (601 Union Rd, Monroe, OH 45036) is thirty minutes north of Cincinnati in Monroe. Established in 2006, TNT has expanded to include a diverse selection, from vape products, to premium e-juices, to high-quality CBD oils. Tailored customer service is a point of emphasis, as is affordable CBD, with online promotions and coupons.

Cleveland Vape (1411 Lauderdale Ave, Lakewood, OH 44107) has the works: high-quality CBD oil, premium e-liquids, mods, atomizers, RDAs, batteries, chargers, and other vape accessories. You’ll also enjoy a friendly, laid back atmosphere, with personalized service and a complementary tasting bar. Check online for coupons! Open seven days a week: 11AM-10PM.

Located just east of Cleveland, Premium Hemp Co (36495 Vine St, Willoughby, OH 44094) features a team of hemp health and wellness experts, eager to help customers find the right CBD or other hemp-derived product to fit their medical needs. In addition to a wide variety of CBD hemp oil, edibles, tinctures, and other CBD products, Premium Hemp emphasizes an educational and informative approach, especially appropriate for first-time CBD buyers. Open seven days a week: Monday-Saturday 11AM-7PM; Sunday 12PM-5PM.

CBD Shops in Youngstown

For anyone in the Youngstown area, Valley Tobacco (5880 Mahoning Ave, Austintown, OH 44515) is a 5 star-rated shop established in 1941. In addition to a high-quality CBD selection, the shop specializes in premium tobacco products, e-cigs, vape liquids, cigar accessories, and more. Open seven days a week.

Buy CBD Springfield, OH

Buy CBD Springfield, OH
Where to buy quality CBD Oil in Springfield

The Springfield CBD Buying Process

Springfield CBD stores are not created equal. People in Springfield, OH can buy CBD online from N8 Essentials and have their CBD delivered in just a few days.

Learn About CBD

Learn about CBD in Springfield, Ohio. We’ll help explain the CBD laws and also the best way to buy CBD in Springfield.

N8 Essentials Offers CBD in Springfield

We’re one of the leading distributors of CBD oils and topical products in Springfield, OH. Learn more about what we have to offer.

$22 billion

Industry (projected by 2020)

+ 200 k

Buy CBD in Springfield, OH
from N8 Essentials

Experience the Springfield CBD Revolution

CBD has exploded in popularity in Springfield, Ohio over the past few years, thanks to its medical benefits and lack of psychoactive effects. CBD shows great potential for treating anxiety, pain, inflammation, seizures, sleeping disorders and neurological conditions. According to a 2017 study by the Hemp Business Journal, CBD sales in Springfield from products derived from hemp and marijuana more than tripled from 2014 to 2017. People in Springfield frequently are searching online for things like “CBD near me” or “where to buy CBD in Springfield, OH.”

CBD is one of over 100 cannabinoids produced by the marijuana plant, but unlike the majority of them – which are not known to possess major health benefits on their own – it is known to display nearly all of the medicinal and therapeutic properties of whole-plant cannabis.

With laws being altered throughout America to allow for medical marijuana use, however, the traditional stigma is rapidly dissipating, and we have to put much of that change down to CBD and its incredible array of benefits.

At N8 Essentials, we provide the Springfield community with fairly priced hemp oil extracts. We aim at providing and educating everyone about the benefits of Springfield CBD oil. Buy pure CBD oil in Springfield, OH; we are driven by the principles that extend far beyond the bottom line. It is our goal to provide the CBD oil in Springfield with the highest possible quality while contributing to the sustainability of the communities that we have the privilege of serving.

There are many places to buy CBD oil in Springfield, with or without a doctor’s prescription. Since CBD contains only trace amounts of THC, the psychoactive compound in marijuana, it’s legal in all 50 states. There are stores, gas stations and everyone in between selling CBD oil in Springfield, but they are not all the same…

Is CBD Legal in Springfield, OH?

Yes! CBD oil is legal in Springfield, Ohio and everywhere across the USA. The organically grown hemp plants that produce the cannabinoid (CBD) contain far below the legal limit of THC. THC is the part of marijuana that produces a psychoactive effect. Our CBD oil is made to give you full spectrum CBD benefits for the best overall health, without getting high. This is a popular way for Springfield, OH residents to treat many conditions like pain, anxiety and insomnia, legally. The federal government classifies CBD oil in Springfield as a dietary supplement as long as the THC content is below .03%. Recent legislation legalized a CBD oil called Epidiolex to treat Epilepsy. This is the first marijuana-derived medication approved by the FDA.

Springfield, OH CBD Production Infographic

Our Zero-THC phytocannabinoid-rich hemp extract (Springfield CBD) products have all cannabinoids and terpenes naturally found in hemp except Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This non-psychoactive product allows for the distribution of our hemp oil in Springfield, Ohio.

The extraction and purification process uses a proprietary and patented technology that preserves all the phytocannabinoids, terpenes, and plant lipids while eliminating unwanted THC and chlorophyll. Customers can customize our hemp-infused products to their desired potency and specifications.

What type of Springfield CBD should I purchase?

Most people in Springfield pick their CBD oil based on their preferred method of consumption. However, sublingual tinctures are the most effective because its effects are felt almost immediately. Also, in today’s Medical Cannabis Industry, Vaporizer Cartridges are the most popular and hottest selling product on the market, specially young adults who prefer vaporizing their CBD Oil.

Buy CBD Oil in Springfield, OH from N8 Essentials

Npower

We equip people with tools to take control of their family's health and financial well-being.

Ntrust

We provide the highest quality products so you are confident sharing them with your family and friends.

Ntegrity

We lead by example and live by principles that you can rely upon.

Novate

We are dedicated to being on the leading edge of the health and wellness revolution.

Nspire

We are dedicated to creating a positive environment that fosters creativity and personal growth

Nhance

We are committed to improving the lives of people in Springfield, OH

We delight in seeing others succeed and have fun doing it.

Ncourage

We provide a healthy environment where you are able to have the courage, spirit and hope to achieve the freedom you deserve.

CBD oil in Springfield can be taken in different forms to suit the preference and needs of its users. People seeking CBD oil benefits have a wide selection of options that are available in Springfield, OH.

History of CBD in Springfield

CBD first received national recognition in 2013, when CNN featured a documentary about Charlotte Figi, a little girl with a severe case of Dravet syndrome. When Charlotte was five years old, she was experiencing nearly 300 seizures a week and no treatments seemed to help control her seizures. Absolutely devastated, her family desperately searched for an alternative to conventional treatments. The entire world took notice of this incident, and research began for the potential medical CBD benefits. Many studies have generated positive results, which has made the demand for the supplement skyrocket.

Although CBD was discovered in the 1940s, research in Springfield, Ohio has been slow due to the legal status of cannabis over the last century. This past decade however, CBD has eliminated its negative stigma of being associated with marijuana, and many medical professionals have recommended it to help cope with various health conditions.

When you’re looking to buy hemp oil in Springfield, it can be incredibly tough trying to distinguish one brand or company from the next. If you know your stuff, you’ll know that the best brands in Springfield source their raw material from legal industrial hemp, extract the active CBD with low-temperature CO2 equipment, offer third-party laboratory testing, and produce organic, solvent-free oils, capsules, and tinctures.

Springfield CBD Oil Guide

Why is CBD so popular in Springfield, Ohio?

It’s hard to say the precise moment when CBD in Springfield went from being a fidget spinner alternative for stoners to a mainstream panacea. So the question now becomes: Is this the dawning of a new miracle elixir, or does all the hype mean we have already reached Peak CBD?

Is CBD Legal in Springfield, OH?

The cannabis plant comes in many different varieties. For decades though, the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) treated them all the same, classifying cannabis as a Schedule I substance. Schedule I drugs are considered to have “no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse” and are thus illegal to produce or possess.

However, the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (aka the Farm Bill) changed all that. The Farm Bill legalized “hemp,” which the legislation defined as cannabis that contains no more than 0.3% THC, in Springfield, Ohio and surrounding areas like Steubenville and Springboro.

CBD is available in a variety of forms. Some of the most common CBD delivery methods are listed below, but how it’s ultimately used depends on personal needs and preferences. The delivery method of CBD affects how quickly it works and what kinds of effects it has on the body.

    are broad range of products to eat or drink, like gummies or chocolates. Edibles can take anywhere from 20 minutes to four hours to take effect. are processed and concentrated forms of CBD that are often placed under the tongue using a dropper and absorbed into the bloodstream. are ingested orally and look similar to the vitamins and/or drugs you’d find in a drugstore. They typically contain CBD oil or CBD isolate. are CBD-infused oils, creams and lotions that are intended to be used directly on skin, hair or nails. They’re a popular way to treat localized pain, but are also used as skincare, haircare and massage oil as well.
  • Vaping, like e-cigarettes, involves inhaling a vaporized liquid that contains CBD oil. Nicotine is not usually present if CBD is, though it is possible to mix them.

As you can see, there are plenty of CBD available in Springfield, OH, as well as CBD stores that sell products online.

According to Forbes, CBD sales in Ohio are projected to increase by 700% this year. Consumers are catching on to this super compound found in the marijuana and hemp plant. It?s healing properties are plentiful and research continues to discover even more. As more people look to put good into their bodies as a means of truly healing and extending their life expectancy, the popularity of CBD will continue to increase. If you?re suffering from any of the ailments listed above, talk with your doctor about potentially using alternative measures like CBD to treat it. It may just be the natural alternative you were looking for.

CBD in Ohio

Searching for the relevant offers to buy CBD oil in Ohio? You are only one step away from boosting your wellness and wellbeing with the help of or CBD products from the brand you may trust.

The Most Popular CBD Products in Ohio

Unabis offers safe, lab-tested high-quality CBD products delivered for free to any location in Ohio with 30 days satisfaction money-back guarantee. Shop now and get a 20% discount with the CBDINOHIO coupon.

There are two of the most popular CBD products our customers from Ohio, US choose frequently.

CBD Gummies in Ohio

CBD gummies are adored by those users who like to consume CBD right on the go and enjoy their creative look. CBD gummies may take the form of colorful bears, fruit slices, balls, or worms. However, their funny appearance doesn’t mean they are effectless. What’s more, their presized dosage allows you to carefully control the amount of CBD you consume.

CBD Gummies Near in Ohio

CBD tinctures or oils are one of the most popular options for CBD consumption. Most customers note their fast-to-come effect, the opportunity to choose the different strengths of CBD in the oil compound, and thus, match the CBD product with their health goals. Plus, there are a lot of pleasant tastes in addition to the natural ones.

Table of Contents

BUY CBD IN OHIO: THINGS TO CONSIDER

Novice CBD buyers may have a lot of concerns regarding CBD usage, its possible effects, and benefits, as well as the legal side of the issue. All these factors are essential for making a final decision, so let’s find out whether the purchasing and consumption of CBD are legal in Ohio, and where to buy the best CBD products in this state.

Is CBD Legal in Ohio?

The legality of the CBD status across different US states is one of the main concerns of most customers, especially those who are going to try CBD for the first time. So, is CBD oil illegal in Ohio? Fortunately, not! CBD oil in Ohio is completely legal, however, let us remind how this state defines hemp products and the way it differs from marijuana-derived products.

Previously, hemp and marijuana-derived products were considered to be the same by this state, and thus, were allowed for medical use only in a limited number of cases. However, in 2019, the legislation was changed and these two concepts got new definitions.

Thus, according to the local laws, hemp-derived products are those that contain less than 0,3% THC and they are completely legal to be sold and consumed on the territory of Ohio.

CBD Laws in Ohio

Fortunately, CBD oil Ohio laws are quite clear, understandable, and CBD-friendly. Let’s find out how this state regulates the process of CBD cultivation, processing, labeling, and sales so that you can make sure that you are going to buy not only the top-notch but absolutely legal product.

Licensing Requirements for CBD in Ohio

According to the Ohio Department of Agriculture, any hemp product processor (i.e the company that produces final CBD products) should have a special license, plus the company should be inspected by the Department as well. The annual fee for license application is $100.

However, if you want to sell CBD oil in Ohio, you don’t need a license, however, you should comply with Ohio Products Labeling Standards and state that there is less than 0,3% THC in the product compound.

Cultivation Requirements

There are no specific cultivation requirements for Ohio CBD oil. However, there is a Hemp Cultivation and Processing Program that is under development in this state. Thus, the Farm Bill 2018 norms are applicable in this case on the level of federal law. Hemp raw materials that are used to produce Unabis CBD products are compliant with this legal norm as well.

Labeling Requirements

As for the labeling requirements for the CBD oil for sale in Ohio, then the local authorities strive for complete transparency of product compounds. Thus, the CBD products processor should indicate the following points on the CBD oil Ohio packaging:

  • Name of the product
  • Weight of the product according to the domestic and international system
  • The list of ingredients
  • Statement of Responsibility
  • Bar or QR code
  • Health safety precautions.

You may review Unabis CBD products to find out how the right and informative labeling should look like, according to Ohio’s legal requirements.

Testing Requirements

All CBD Ohio products should necessarily be tested before being offered for sale and consumption. In this case, a CBD oil processor should pick a random sample from a bunch of produced goods and send it to the independent laboratory to be tested.

The result of the testing should confirm or deny the presence of microbes, mycotoxins, heavy metals, and potentially hazardous solvents. Plus, it should carefully define the amount of THCA, THC, CBDA, CBD, and other cannabinoids that will be found in the product compound.

As for the presence of solvents, they should necessarily be mentioned if the producer used any other method except for CO2 extraction. Unabis CBD tinctures and CBD gummies are created using carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction only so you will never find the presence of hazardous solvents in the compound of our products.

WHERE TO BUY CBD OIL IN OHIO

Since CBD products are legal in Ohio, they may be openly sold online and offline. Basically, these are two main options you may choose from when deciding to buy CBD in Ohio.

Offline Dispensary Shops in Ohio

Deciding to buy CBD in Ohio in dispensary shops, pay attention to the following criteria since they will help you to do it in a reliable place.

Licensing

According to the legal regulations of CBD in Ohio, a reseller of CBD products shouldn’t have a license. However, a CBD manufacturer should. That’s why you can always ask for a license provided by the manufacturer and it should be shown to you upon request.

Lab tests

The legal norms also state that each bunch of CBD products offered offline or online should be tested by the independent laboratory, and you have the right to review this document as well. Don’t hesitate to ask for it, and never buy CBD oil in Ohio that isn’t compliant with this requirement.

Pricing

In most cases, the price to buy CBD products in dispensary shops is higher compared to the offers you may find online since the business owners should pay rent, utility bills and invest in offline advertising which is always pricier compared to digital ads.

Discounts

Getting a discount is always a good deal, however, most offline store owners offer the discount to loyal customers or to those who have made a purchase on a significant amount. In any case, you may ask about the discounts and loyalty programs and perhaps find a better deal.

Reviews

Surely, you may look for online reviews of the dispensary shop before deciding on the purchase. However, not all store owners consider them necessary to have and care about their online reputation. Thus, the only way to get a credible review of a physical store is to get a recommendation from other buyers which is also not always possible.

The Downsides of Buying CBD Locally in Ohio

Buying CBD in dispensary shops in Ohio is quite realistic, and legal (if the store complies with the requirements above – licensing and lab testing availability), however, there is one more concern – your privacy. Some CBD users may feel frustrated when it comes to buying it locally since other people might think that you are using marijuana which is very often considered to be the same as CBD and is also surrounded by stereotypes and misunderstandings. In this regard, online purchase turns out to be a completely private way to buy CBD products in Ohio with the opportunity to make sure of product quality and brand reliability.

Buy CBD Online with Ohio Shipping

Buying CBD in Ohio online is one more option to consider. Plus, you can get the same and even more benefits following this strategy.

Lab Tests and Quality Assurance

The presence of the lab test results is obligatory for offline and online sellers. We, at Unabis, consider transparency and legal compliance one of our core priorities so you may find the results of our products testing on each of the product pages. They are always available and updated for each bunch supplied.

Discounts

Taking care of your well-being should be budget-friendly, and that’s why we have a lot of loyalty programs and discounts to offer. Right now you may use the CBDINOHIO coupon to get a 20% discount on any purchase on our website, and this is not the last benefit you still have to discover.

Customer Support

CBD products are quite popular in the modern wellness market, however, there are still a lot of misconceptions, myths, and concerns about them. Our support team is here to answer your questions and assist you at each of the stages of your decision-making process. You are welcome to get in touch with Unabis customer service by phone, email, or live chat and get competent advice instantly.

Privacy

One of the greatest advantages of online CBD shopping is the opportunity to stay private but still take action towards your health improvement. Personal and financial data protection solutions embedded on our website allow us to stay safe when it comes to sensitive information you share with us. What’s more, purchasing CBD products in Ohio online, you may be sure that nobody will discover the details of your order.

Free Shipping to Ohio

In addition to the best quality assurance and data protection practices, friendly customer support, and flexible discounts, you may get your order shipped to Ohio for free within several business days. No hidden fees and additional payments!

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do u test ppsitive for cannibis with cbd oil

Will I test positive for Cannabis if I use CBD oil?

It’s unlikely that you’ll fail a drug test due to a CBD product. However, the chances are increased if you’re consuming a large amount of Full-Spectrum CBD daily. In order to avoid testing positive for the presence of cannabis on a drug test, purchase THC-Free Broad-Spectrum CBD.

We’re proud to offer our CBD products in a THC-Free Broad Spectrum extract that contains all of hemp’s whole plant beneficial nutrients, without THC. Learn more about Broad-Spectrum CBD extracts, here. Purchase THC-Free Broad-Spectrum CBD by using the dropdown option to the right of the Neurogan product of your choice.

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cbd oil for teething

Cbd oil for teething

I wouldn’t risk giving CBD oil to a baby. There aren’t enough studies done that would make me feel confident that it isn’t doing some kind of harm or that it has any benefit at all. I also tend to think the whole CBD oil thing is a bunch of over-marketed hype anyway, but I’ve never used it.

Give baby some Tylenol or Motrin and let him chew on some cold teethers.

CBD oil is not recommended for children except for very specific seizure disorders.

Give your kid a cold teether and some tylenol. Your friend is a fucking idiot.

I wouldn’t risk giving CBD oil to a baby. There aren’t enough studi…

It isn’t regulated by the FDA like other medications so its difficult to say if you’re getting the actual dosage of CBD in the oil that’s listed.

Tylenol and Motrin ARE heavily regulated and you know the exact dosage listed is what you are getting because of this. There are plenty of studies done and in giving the proper dosage, it is extremely unlikely to get any adverse reactions in an otherwise healthy person.

CBD oil for teething

Does anyone have experience with this? My 15 month old is getting all four molars at once and has been miserable. I’m wondering if CBD oil would help.

Thanks in advance!

Aw, honestly I’d just give Tylenol and ibuprofen if the baby is old enough. Pain relief, gum numbing, massage the gums to help break through the teeth, popsicles or the toys you can freeze. I don’t see CBD helping too much with teething pain. But I don’t have experience with it.

we got our daughter one of those amber necklaces and her molars all came on at once and we didn’t even realize. that thing does wonders!!

We have a Amber necklace also, I love it!

OP, use all the cbd oil in the world for yourself but just give the baby some damn Tylenol

like others said…Tylenol is terrible for you. I’m not sure I’d personally use CBD on my baby- but chill on the mom shaming. Go smoke some weed and relax.

exactly!! doctors get paid for recommending Tylenol and people go for it without doing their research

CBD is definitely a safer option than Tylenol

Your body has an endocannabinoid system for CBD. Just make sure it’s broad spectrum, meaning (the whole plant with 0% THC)

Your breast milk has cannabinoids

No one’s encouraging anything (ONE) mom shared her experience with it. You all bit,ch and complain too much and way too much judgement. This is not Ganja Mama’s Board this is the new bit,ch and complain board.

lmao lmao. Your post made me laugh so hard

my daughter has always gotten numerous teeth at once including the molars.. i switch between tylenol and motrin. i also give frozen yogurt pops soft foods and breastfeed

The main thing you should know about CBD is that it is first and foremost the most effective anti inflammatory. It also help relax muscles and promotes REM sleep. However, using it for an infant could be tricky because we simply don’t have any research to go off of for small children. That being said, my 11 month old it’s teething very aggressively. So I put two drops in her pacifier the other night because she hasn’t slept more than 4 hours a night for the last week. I gave her that teeny tiny dose and she slept for a solid 5 extra hours. Keep in mind, I only did this out of desperation but it does seem to have helped with her pain considerably. So my advice to you, if you do decide to use CBD for your baby, do so sparingly.

Yes, CBD is my alternative for over the counter medicine for over 3 years now. I highly reccomend it! CBD has anti-inflammatory properties, it soothes their gums from swelling. I currently use one from Texas Hemp Culture since it’s 0% THC, the psychoactive compund found in marijuana. Now you won’t have to worry if it would pop up in a drug test. Also make sure the CBD you buy has COAs , lab reports so you know the exact ingredients to be safe from harmful added chemicals. Hope this helped!

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benefit of cbd oil for subcuteneus lymphoma

Dog Skin Cancer: Natural Options To Help Manage It

Skin cancer isn’t just a disease in people and it isn’t just caused by too much time in the sun without sunscreen. Half of all dogs get cancer, and all forms of cancer are on the rise, including dog skin cancer.

In fact, skin tumors are the most common tumors in dogs.

So let’s look at the most common types of dog skin cancer. Then we can review a few natural treatment options that will help your dog safely … and could help him avoid the risks and stress of surgery.

Types of Dog Skin Cancer

There are several different types of dog skin cancer. Three of the most common are:

  • Melanoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Mast cell tumors

But there are few others you’ll want to know about too, including:

  • Histiocytoma
  • Cutaneous hemangiosarcoma
  • Cutaneous lymphoma

My goal with this post is to help you …

  • Get more familiar with what these growths look like.
  • Know how they act in the body.
  • Know when you need to be aggressive with care at home.

So here’s what you need to know about the 6 skin cancers dogs can get.

1. Melanoma

Melanomas are abnormal growths that involve melanocytes – the cells that produce pigments (color). These cells exist throughout your dog’s entire body, wherever tissues have color.

Melanomas can either be benign or malignant.

Benign melanomas:

  • Range in size from very small to 2.5 inches or more in diameter
  • Are usually less of a worry than malignant melanomas. That’s because the risk of them spreading is not very high
  • Are black, brown, gray or red in color
  • Usually, appear on hairy areas of the skin

Malignant melanomas:

  • Are more aggressive, invasive melanomas that often spread quickly to other areas of the body.
  • It can spread to any part of the body, including the lymph nodes and lungs. This makes them a much more serious threat than benign melanomas.
  • Are often in a dog’s mouth, around the lips, or on the feet, in toenail beds or on the pads

The cause of melanoma in dogs isn’t clear.

In people, melanoma is usually caused by damage to the DNA of skin cells (especially by UV light). But this isn’t likely with dogs since many of the melanomas are in places that aren’t exposed to UV light.

Genetics also seem to play a role. The breeds most at risk include:

  • Vizslas
  • Schnauzers
  • Doberman Pinschers
  • Airedale Terriers
  • Bay Retrievers

2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma is cancer that originates in the outer layer of the skin. This skin layer is known as the squamous epithelium.

Carcinomas are characteristically malignant and especially invasive.

Squamous cell carcinomas:

  • Typically grow quickly, getting bigger with time
  • Are usually resistant to healing
  • May appear as crusty, bleeding sores that don’t heal for months.
  • Or can be hard, white-colored wart-like growths
  • Usually appear on the lips, gums, belly, around the genitals, or on the feet

Like melanomas, there’s some debate over the causes of squamous dog skin cancer. Extended exposure to sunlight, which damages cells, is the most common theory.

A weak immune system may allow these cells to become malignant. Genetics may also be a factor. The breeds most at risk are:

  • Keeshonds
  • Standard Schnauzers
  • Basset Hounds
  • Collies

3. Mast Cell Tumor

Mast cell tumors are the most common type of dog skin cancer. As the name suggests, they appear in the mast cells.

Mast cells are a type of immune cell. They play a role in allergic reactions and inflammatory responses.

Mast cells contain histamine, heparin and enzymes to fight off predatory foreign invaders … but damage from allergies or inflammation can cause problems.

Mast cell tumors:

  • Usually develop in the skin
  • Can also develop internally, but this is less common
  • Can vary widely in size, shape, appearance, texture and location
  • Show up as an isolated lump or mass or can appear in clusters
  • May grow in size, then shrink
  • May appear red in color, may be hairless or ulcerated (an open wound)

Most dogs won’t have any symptoms of irritation or illness, other than the lump.

The causes of mast cell tumors in dogs are unclear. The sun is a potential culprit, but genetics also seem to play a role.

The dogs most at risk include:

  • Boxers
  • Bulldogs
  • Pugs
  • Boston Terriers
  • Beagles
  • Bullmastiffs
  • Dachshunds
  • Schnauzers

4. Histiocytoma

A histiocytoma is a benign skin growth that originates from a Langerhans cell. Langerhans cells live in the skin and serve as part of the immune system. They help process incoming antigens and match them with the best immune cell.

  • Are often found in young dogs under 2 years of age
  • Are round and often appear on the front half of the body
  • Often disappear on their own in 3 months
  • Can occasionally grow on rear legs
  • Sometimes occur in older patients as well

… So it’s always best to have your holistic vet diagnose them to be certain.

The dogs most at risk include:

  • Labrador Retrievers
  • Staffordshire Terriers
  • Boxers
  • Dachshunds

5. Subcutaneous And Dermal Hemangiosarcoma

The skin forms of hemangiosarcoma are less serious than blood forms. They can be managed topically or surgically removed.

These masses are either dermal or subcutaneous. The subcutaneous forms can also be called hypodermal; both these terms mean below the skin.

Dermal hemangiosarcomas:

  • Are often related to sun exposure that damages cells
  • Appear as rosy red or black growths in thinly haired spots on the body
  • Will often appear in multiple areas of the body at once
  • One-third of cases can spread internally … so getting an early diagnosis is important

The dogs most at risk include:

  • Dogs with short white fur
  • Dalmatians
  • Pit Bull Terriers

Subcutaneous or hypodermal hemangiosarcomas:

  • Develop below the skin or become dermal growths that have spread
  • Are more aggressive – 60% spread into the body quickly
  • Often appear as dark red blood growth under the skin – but the skin above can look normal
  • Require staging due to the risk of them spreading in the body so quickly. (I’ll explain staging in a bit.)
  • Surgery … although itself risky … decreases the risk of the growth spreading deeper into the body

These growths are more aggressive. You’ll need to start treatment with your holistic vet immediately.

So … I mentioned the need to stage these growths. Let’s get into that.

Staging A Skin Hemangiosarcoma

The subcutaneous form of hemangiosarcoma wants to spread quickly. Staging is how your vet determines the extent of the cancer and the risk of spreading.

Staging helps your holistic vet develop the best treatment plan for your dog.

There are a few diagnostic tests your vet can run, including:

  • Chest x-rays to make sure the cancer isn’t spreading into the lungs
  • Abdominal ultrasound, specifically the spleen as this tumor likes the spleen tissue
  • Heart ultrasound. Ultrasound can detect a small heart-based hemangiosarcoma.

Once your holistic vet knows if the cancer cells are spreading, she can choose the best treatment.

6. T- cell Lymphoma or Cutaneous Epitheliotropic Lymphoma

You might think of lymphoma cancers as being only inside the body. But these cancer cells can develop in any part of the body that has lymph tissue – and that includes your dog’s skin.

  • Tend to be itchy
  • Can look like a rash initially
  • Can sometimes lead to secondary skin infections

If your dog is battling a skin issue that you can’t clear up, check in with your holistic vet to be sure.

There are three types of skin lymphomas:

  • Mycosis fungoides
  • Sézary syndrome
  • Pagetoid reticulosis
Mycosis Fungoides

This form got its name due to its mushroom-like appearance … but it’s not a fungal issue. It can appear on the skin and also on your dog’s gums. It can be ulcerative in the mouth.

Sézary Syndrome

Mycosis fungoides can progress to Sézary syndrome. This is very rare in dogs but can happen in 5% of people. The cancer cells move into the bloodstream and create leukemia.

But these cells are not like typical leukemia cancer cells … so they are called Sézary cells.

Pagetoid Reticulosis

Pagetoid reticulosis and mycosis fungoides can’t be seen with the naked eye. The cells can only be confirmed under a microscope. So your holistic vet would need a biopsy to know.

These cancers tend to stay on the surface of the skin and don’t spread to tissues below.

Is Surgery Right For Skin Cancer?

In some cases, removing the tumor may help prevent its spread. But there are some risks with surgery you’ll also need to weigh …

First, surgery is invasive. Any time you cut into your dog’s body, there are small risks from the anesthesia, blood clots and post-op infections. And the anaesthesia and pain meds are an additional immune insult your dog needs to deal with.

Some research suggests surgery can cause the cancer to spread. There’s also a risk that the surgeon won’t be able to remove all microscopic cancer cells … which means that the mass may grow back.

So you may opt out of surgery for your dog. But that doesn’t mean there’s nothing you can do.

One of the good things about skin cancers is that they’re easy to get to … and they respond well to natural therapy.

Cancer As A Systemic Disease

Cancer is systemic. This means it affects the whole body.

For example, if your dog has a malignant melanoma, you may see the tumor itself … but you can’t see how the cancer is affecting the rest of your dog’s body.

So, when you choose to remove a tumor, you’re just removing one part of the problem. That’s why tumors often come back, especially with skin cancer.

There’s something else at work that’s causing the problem to begin with. Cancer in your dog means his immune system isn’t working as well as it should. So you need to support the whole body.

How can you do that?

Your attitude towards cancer also plays a role. Changing your perspective on cancer can make a big difference. Cancer is not a death sentence. Your emotions can have a significant impact on how happy – and healthy – your dog is.

Topical Solutions for Dog Skin Cancer

Here are the two most effective natural treatment options for dog skin cancer.

1. Neoplasene

Neoplasene is a cream made from bloodroot extract. It works by causing apoptosis (cell death) in cancer cells. Once applied to the tumor, the tumor cells actually die and the tissue will eventually slough off.

The Pros: It works and it’s not as invasive as surgery. With surgery, it’s really hard to get all of the microscopic cancer cells. Neoplasene helps to seek them out and helps the immune system seek and destroy them.

The Cons: It’s a veterinary treatment and requires frequent office visits. Because the cancerous tissue sloughs off, it leaves a hole. This means proper wound management is crucial afterwards. It looks scary and it can also be painful for your dog. So it’s hard for some dog owners to deal with.

2. Turmeric

Turmeric contains a compound called curcumin – which is its active ingredient. Curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, wound healing and anticancer abilities.

There have been thousands of studies done on turmeric. In fact, nearly a third of the studies are cancer research. The results are very promising.

Turmeric has been shown to kill cancer cells and prevent more from growing. It can also stop precancerous changes from becoming cancerous.

Turmeric also kills only the cancer cells and leaves healthy cells alone.

The American Cancer Society claims,

“Curcumin interferes with cancer development, growth, and spread.”

The Pros: Turmeric works, it’s inexpensive, it isn’t painful and you can use it to treat dog skin cancer at home.

The Cons: Turmeric stains your hands, carpets and furniture. If you use it you’ll need to wrap your dog after each application.

One of the easiest ways to use it is with a salve. Here’s an easy recipe you can make at home …

Recipe For Healing Salve For Dog Skin Cancer

You’ll need equal parts:

  • Organic turmeric powder
  • Raw coconut oil (cold pressed)
  • Organic lecithin powder

Mix the ingredients together to form a paste and store in a glass jar. Keep it refrigerated.

Here’s how to use it:

  • Apply it once a day for 7 days
  • After 7 days, let it air for 24 hours
  • If there is still a lump, reapply for 2 to 5 more days, until the lump pops or falls off

You can also get a ready-made turmeric healing salve instead of making it on your own.

Immune Boosters To Help Beat Dog Skin Cancer

When battling cancers, it’s never a bad idea to use a few remedies. After all, the sooner you can stop cancer cells from spreading, the better.

You’ll want to add these important supplements to support your dog’s immune system. After all, your dog’s immune system is what will stop cancer cells from growing and spreading.

1. Full Spectrum Hemp CBD

CBD oil from organic hemp has many health benefits … and a big one is fighting and killing cancer cells.

But what you may not realize is that you can use this healing oil topically too. It can help prevent cancer cells from multiplying and spreading. So it’s a great choice, whatever kind of skin cancer your dog has.

2. Medicinal Mushrooms

Reishi and Turkey tail mushrooms are well-known cancer treatments in China and Japan. Several research studies have used turkey tail mushrooms successfully in cancer therapies.

One 2012 study used turkey tail mushrooms on dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma. The researchers found that “development or progression of abdominal metastases was significantly delayed” in the dogs who received higher doses.

Giving your dog daily mushroom supplements can boost immunity and help fight cancer growth.

Related: The health benefits of mushrooms for dogs

What Your Vet May Prescribe For Your Dog’s Skin Cancer

If you take your dog to the vet and ask for a non-surgical treatment option … you might get a prescription for fluorouracil, a topical antimetabolite cream.

This compound prevents cells from metabolizing to stop cell growth. Sounds good, sure. But it’s toxic and is killing dogs.

People are prescribed this cream to deal with their own cancer. There are several scary reports of dogs getting hold of the bottles and eating a small amount … only to die a few hours later.

So doesn’t this make you wonder why a vet would even prescribe it for dogs??

The FDA has warned:

“People using this medication should use care when applying and storing the medication if they are also in a household with pets, as even very small amounts could be dangerous to these animals.”

If your dog can’t safely eat even a small amount, how can it possibly be safe for him? It can’t. So if your vet offers this cream you should politely decline. You can then reach for one of the more natural treatment options that work.

Benefit of cbd oil for subcuteneus lymphoma

Increased susceptibility to infection may occur with either systemic or topical use. Bacterial, viral, protozoal, and fungal infection occur commonly during immunosuppressive therapy and can be fatal. Serious viral infections reported include polyoma virus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) mostly due to BK virus infection, JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. CMV seronegative transplant patients who receive an organ from a CMV seropositive donor are at higher risk of developing CMV viremia and CMV disease. Reactivation of a latent viral infection, especially herpes infection, can occur with immunosuppressive therapy. Monitor for infection and adjust the immunosuppressive regimen to balance the risk of rejection with the risk of infection. Treatment with topical tacrolimus may be associated with an increased risk of varicella zoster (chickenpox or shingles) and herpes simplex infection. In the presence of these infections, the balance of risk and benefits associated with topical therapy should be evaluated. Patients should be instructed to report signs of infection promptly. Therapy requires an experienced clinician, specifically only clinicians experienced in immunosuppressant therapy and organ transplantation should use systemic tacrolimus, and the clinician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient. Administration of systemic tacrolimus requires a specialized care setting and should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical services.

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, such as oral or injectable tacrolimus, are at increased risk for the development of lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin. Risk of developing a malignancy appears to be related to the intensity and duration of immunosuppression rather than the specific immunosuppressive agent. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) has been reported in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients and has an association with the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). The risk of PTLD appears greatest in those patients who are EBV seronegative; a population that includes young pediatric patients. Monitor EBV serology during tacrolimus therapy. Also, immunosuppression from the use of topical tacrolimus may influence the possible development of a new primary malignancy, especially skin cancer, lymphoma, or other lymphoproliferative disorders; rare cases of malignancy (e.g., skin and lymphoma) have been reported, but a causal relationship has not been established. Some malignant conditions such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may mimic atopic dermatitis; avoid the use of topical tacrolimus on premalignant and malignant skin conditions. Discontinue Protopic in the presence of acute infectious mononucleosis, and do not use Protopic in patients who are immunocompromised. Avoid continuous long-term use of topical calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus ointment, and limit application to areas of involvement with atopic dermatitis. Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressant therapy and organ transplantation should use systemic tacrolimus, and the physician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient. Patients initiating systemic tacrolimus therapy should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical services.[28611] [30973] [55401] [60497]

Tacrolimus ointment is not approved for use in neonates, infants, or children younger than 2 years old; only the lower concentration (tacrolimus 0.03%) ointment is recommended for use in non-immunocompromised pediatric patients aged 2 to 15 years. The long-term effect of tacrolimus on the developing immune system in infants and children is not known. Immediate-release capsules and granules for oral suspension are indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in pediatric kidney, liver, and heart transplant patients. In general, pediatric patients require higher tacrolimus doses compared to adults; these requirements may decrease as the child grows older. If pediatric patients are converted between immediate-release formulations, perform therapeutic drug monitoring and adjust the dosage as necessary to ensure adequate tacrolimus exposure is maintained. Astagraf XL is approved in pediatric patients 4 years of age and older. The safety and efficacy of Envarsus XR have not been established in patients less than 18 years of age.

DEA Class
Description

Immunosuppressant; more potent than cyclosporine
Used for graft rejection prophylaxis and treatment of acute or refractory graft rejection; considered an alternative to cyclosporine; topical formulation used for atopic dermatitis
Increased susceptibility to infections and secondary malignancy possible

Common Brand Names

ASTAGRAF XL, ENVARSUS, HECORIA, Prograf, Protopic

How Supplied

ASTAGRAF XL Oral Cap ER: 0.5mg, 1mg, 5mg
ENVARSUS Oral Tab ER: 0.75mg, 1mg, 4mg
HECORIA/Prograf/Tacrolimus Oral Cap: 0.5mg, 1mg, 5mg
Prograf Intravenous Inj Sol: 1mL, 5mg
Prograf Oral Gran F/Recon: 0.2mg, 1mg
Protopic/Tacrolimus Topical Ointment: 0.03%, 0.1%

Dosage & Indications

0.1 to 0.15 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Administer the initial dose of tacrolimus no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation.

0.15 to 0.2 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Administer the initial dose of tacrolimus no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. For conversion from capsules to granules, the total daily dose should remain the same; therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended after conversion.

0.2 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Administer the initial dose of tacrolimus no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. For conversion from granules to capsules, the total daily dose should remain the same; therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended after conversion.

NOTE: In patients unable to take oral tacrolimus, therapy may be initiated with tacrolimus injection. Continue continuous IV infusion only until the patient can tolerate oral administration. Give the first oral dose 8 to 12 hours after the IV infusion is stopped.

0.03 to 0.05 mg/kg/day continuous IV infusion, beginning no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations.

0.03 to 0.05 mg/kg/day continuous IV infusion, beginning no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations.

NOTE: Tacrolimus immediate-release capsules (administered twice daily), immediate-release oral suspension (administered twice daily), extended-release capsules (Astagraf XL; administered once daily), and extended-release tablets (Envarsus XR; administered once daily) are not interchangeable or substitutable.

0.2 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses given 12 hours apart in combination with azathioprine; adjunct therapy with corticosteroids recommended early post-transplant. The first dose may be administered within 24 hours of transplantation but should be delayed until renal function has recovered. Titrate dose based on clinical assessment of rejection and tolerability; monitor trough concentrations to ensure therapeutic concentrations. Lower than the recommended initial tacrolimus doses may be adequate as maintenance therapy.[28611]

NOTE: Tacrolimus immediate-release capsules (administered twice daily), immediate-release oral suspension (administered twice daily), extended-release capsules (Astagraf XL; administered once daily), and extended-release tablets (Envarsus XR; administered once daily) are not interchangeable or substitutable.

0.1 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses given 12 hours apart in combination with mycophenolate mofetil and induction therapy with an interleukin-2 (IL-2) inhibitor, such as basiliximab or daclizumab; adjunct therapy with corticosteroids recommended early post-transplant. The first dose may be administered within 24 hours of transplantation but should be delayed until renal function has recovered. Titrate dose based on clinical assessment of rejection and tolerability; monitor trough concentrations to ensure therapeutic concentrations. Lower than the recommended initial tacrolimus doses may be adequate as maintenance therapy.[28611]

NOTE: Tacrolimus immediate-release capsules (administered twice daily), immediate-release oral suspension (administered twice daily), extended-release capsules (Astagraf XL; administered once daily), and extended-release tablets (Envarsus XR; administered once daily) are not interchangeable or substitutable.

0.1 mg/kg/dose PO once daily (on an empty stomach) pre-operatively (first dose given 12 hours prior to reperfusion) and 0.2 mg/kg/dose PO once daily post-operatively (first dose given within 12 hours after reperfusion but at least 4 hours after the pre-operative dose) in combination with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Titrate dose based on clinical assessment of rejection and tolerability; monitor trough concentrations to ensure therapeutic concentrations.[55401]

Initial dose is 0.14 mg/kg/day as a once daily dose taken on an empty stomach at the same time of day, preferably in the morning, in combination with other immunosuppressants. Titrate dose based on clinical assessment of rejection and tolerability; monitor trough concentrations to ensure therapeutic concentrations.[60497]

Initially, administer at a dose that is 80% of the total daily dose of the tacrolimus immediate-release product. Tacrolimus extended-release tablet is administered PO once daily on an empty stomach, preferably in the morning, in combination with other immunosuppressants. Titrate dose based on clinical assessment of rejection and tolerability; monitor trough concentrations to ensure therapeutic concentrations.[60497]

NOTE: Tacrolimus immediate-release capsules (administered twice daily), immediate-release oral suspension (administered twice daily), extended-release capsules (Astagraf XL; administered once daily), and extended-release tablets (Envarsus XR; administered once daily) are not interchangeable or substitutable.

0.15 to 0.2 mg/kg/dose PO once daily (on an empty stomach) in the morning in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and basiliximab induction therapy. The first dose should be given prior to or within 48 hours after transplant completion. Titrate dose based on clinical assessment of rejection and tolerability; monitor trough concentrations to ensure therapeutic concentrations.[55401]

0.3 mg/kg/dose PO once daily (on an empty stomach) in the morning in combination with mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and basiliximab induction therapy. The first dose should be given within 24 hours after reperfusion. Titrate dose based on clinical assessment of rejection and tolerability; monitor trough concentrations to ensure therapeutic concentrations.[55401]

NOTE: In patients unable to take oral tacrolimus, therapy may be initiated with tacrolimus injection. Continue continuous IV infusion only until the patient can tolerate oral administration.

0.03 to 0.05 mg/kg/day as a continuous IV infusion. The infusion may begin within 24 hours of transplantation but should be delayed until renal function has recovered. Adjust the dose based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Concomitant corticosteroid therapy is recommended during the early post-transplantation period. When the patient is able to tolerate oral therapy, give the first oral dose 8 to 12 hours after discontinuing the infusion.

Experience in pediatric renal transplantation patients is limited. In a prospective study comparing tacrolimus and cyclosporine, pediatric patients received tacrolimus 0.1 mg/kg/day IV as an infusion over 24 hours, then 0.3 mg/kg/day PO in divided doses. At 1 year, patient and graft survival rates were 100% and 96%, respectively.[24938] In another study, 0.3 mg/kg/day PO was given as 2 divided doses (every 12 hours); doses were adjusted to achieve whole blood trough concentrations of 10 to 20 ng/mL for the first 30 days and 5 to 10 ng/mL thereafter. Continuous IV infusion of 0.06 mg/kg/day was required initially in 36 patients; the mean duration of IV receipt was 4.1 +/- 2.9 days.[35708]

0.3 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Administer the initial dose within 24 hours of transplantation, but delay until renal function has recovered. For conversion from capsules to granules or vice versa, the total daily dose should remain the same; therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended after conversion.

0.075 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. The initial dose should be administered no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. According to guidelines, lower concentrations should be sought when used with mycophenolate mofetil as compared with azathioprine because use of lower tacrolimus concentrations with mycophenolate mofetil is safe and is associated with lower rejection rates and improved renal function. Trial data suggest that tacrolimus-based regimens may be associated with lower rejection rates but not with superior survival as compared with cyclosporine-based regimens. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus 0.05 to 0.15 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses titrated to troughs of 5 to 12 ng/mL led to reductions in rejection episodes among patients with refractory or persistent rejection. After conversion to tacrolimus, the number of treated episodes of rejection decreased from 1.2 +/- 1 to 0.3 +/- 0.5 episodes per patient per year. In another study, replacement of cyclosporine with tacrolimus led to a mean number of rejection episodes Grade 3A or higher of 0.7 +/- 0.8 as compared with 3.2 +/- 0.4 before the switch to tacrolimus.

0.3 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. If cell depleting induction treatment is administered, initiate tacrolimus at 0.1 mg/kg/day PO. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Administer the initial dose no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. For conversion from capsules to granules, the total daily dose should remain the same; therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended after conversion.

0.3 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. If cell depleting induction treatment is administered, initiate tacrolimus at 0.1 mg/kg/day PO. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Administer the initial dose no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. For conversion from granules to capsules, the total daily dose should remain the same; therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended after conversion.

NOTE: In patients unable to take oral tacrolimus, therapy may be initiated with tacrolimus injection. Continue continuous IV infusion only until the patient can tolerate oral tacrolimus administration. Give the first oral dose 8 to 12 hours after the IV infusion is stopped.

0.01 mg/kg/day as a continuous IV infusion, beginning no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. Adjust the dose based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. According to guidelines, monotherapy with early corticosteroid withdrawal may be considered in highly selected patients. Lower tacrolimus concentrations should be sought when used with mycophenolate mofetil as compared with azathioprine because use of lower tacrolimus concentrations with mycophenolate mofetil is safe and is associated with lower rejection rates and improved renal function. Trial data suggest that tacrolimus-based regimens may be associated with lower rejection rates but not with superior survival as compared with cyclosporine-based regimens.

Experience in pediatric heart transplantation patients is limited. Tacrolimus dosage 0.03 to 0.05 mg/kg/day continuous IV infusion to achieve whole blood concentrations of 15 to 20 ng/mL has been studied. In a retrospective review, doses less than 0.05 mg/kg/day IV may have resulted in a clinically important delay in reaching therapeutic concentrations. Frequent monitoring of whole blood concentrations is recommended during the first 48 hours, especially when the initial concentration is more than 10 ng/mL to avoid toxicity. According to heart transplant guidelines, maintenance therapy for all pediatric heart transplant recipients should include a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) such as tacrolimus, and tacrolimus monotherapy is acceptable for patients with a benign rejection history. Tacrolimus is the preferred CNI for those considered to be at high immunologic risk such as sensitized recipients with evidence of donor-specific antibody. Also, patients with preformed alloantibodies and a positive donor-specific cross-match should get tacrolimus, corticosteroids, and either mycophenolate mofetil or a mTOR inhibitor such as sirolimus or everolimus.

0.075 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. Administer the initial dose no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Administer in combination with azathioprine or mycophenolate. Due to lower bioavailability, patients with cystic fibrosis may require higher doses of tacrolimus.

0.3 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. If cell depleting induction treatment is administered, initiate tacrolimus at 0.1 mg/kg/day PO. Administer the initial dose no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Due to lower bioavailability, patients with cystic fibrosis may require higher doses of tacrolimus. For conversion from granules to capsules, the total daily dose should remain the same; therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended after conversion.

0.3 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, every 12 hours. If cell depleting induction treatment is administered, initiate tacrolimus at 0.1 mg/kg/day PO. Administer the initial dose no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Due to lower bioavailability, patients with cystic fibrosis may require higher doses of tacrolimus. For conversion from granules to capsules, the total daily dose should remain the same; therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended after conversion.

0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg/day continuous IV infusion, beginning no sooner than 6 hours after transplantation. Adjust dose as needed based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations.

Apply a thin layer to the affected areas twice daily. Rub in gently and completely. Treatment should continue for one week after clearing of signs and symptoms. Do not use under occlusive dressings. A European study revealed that topical tacrolimus (0.03%, 0.1%, and 0.3%) every 12 hours for 3 weeks was an effective treatment for atopic dermatitis and statistically superior to vehicle alone.

Apply a thin layer to the affected areas twice daily. Rub in gently and completely. Treatment should continue for one week after clearing of signs and symptoms. Do not use under occlusive dressings.

A retrospective study reported that 12 patients (younger than 2 years of age) treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1% or 0.03% had significant improvement in their atopic dermatitis without adverse effects. No measurable serum tacrolimus concentrations were reported. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed. A thin layer of ointment should be applied to the affected areas twice daily. Rub in gently and completely. Treatment should continue for one week after clearing of signs and symptoms. Do not use under occlusive dressings.

Limited data suggest tacrolimus 0.03% ointment applied topically once daily 3 times weekly to normal-appearing skin previously affected by atopic dermatitis may be effective. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 105 patients ages 2 to 15 years with stabilized moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis were randomized to tacrolimus 0.03% ointment or vehicle applied once daily, 3 times per week to normal-appearing skin previously affected by atopic dermatitis for up to 40 weeks. The tacrolimus-treated patients experienced a significantly greater number of disease-free days compared to vehicle (174 vs. 107, p = 0.0008), significantly longer time to first relapse (116 days vs. 31 days, p = 0.04), and significantly fewer relapse days (47 vs. 76, p = 0.04). In addition, the number of relapses per patient was limited to 3 or less in the tacrolimus group compared to up to 6 in the vehicle group. The severity of relapse was considered mild in the majority of the tacrolimus-treated patients; whereas, the severity was moderate in greater than 50% of the vehicle-treated patients. The incidence of application-site adverse effects was similar between the groups (12% for tacrolimus vs. 11% for vehicle).

Tacrolimus has been widely studied for rescue therapy in patients who do not tolerate cyclosporine, have cyclosporine-refractory rejection or chronic rejection. Doses studied include 0.075—0.15 mg/kg/day continuous IV infusion, then 0.3 mg/kg/day PO in divided doses. In one study, patients with uncontrolled rejection or complications related to cyclosporine were given tacrolimus 0.15 mg/kg/day IV as a continuous infusion over 24 hours, followed by 0.3 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses every 12 hours. Of the 39 patients meeting criteria for tacrolimus rescue therapy, all but 12 responded to therapy as demonstrated by histopathologic findings and liver function. In a follow-up report, patients receiving cyclosporine were changed to tacrolimus because of failure of the conventional immunosuppressive therapy. The tacrolimus dosage was 0.075—0.15 mg/kg IV given over 4 hours, followed by 0.3 mg/kg/day PO in divided doses.

Dosages studied include tacrolimus 0.15 mg/kg/day continuous IV infusion, then 0.15—0.33 mg/kg/day PO in divided doses. In children whose immunosuppressive therapy was changed to tacrolimus therapy after early or late graft rejection on conventional immunosuppression, the tacrolimus dosage was 0.15 mg/kg/day IV as a slow infusion, followed by 0.15 mg/kg PO every 12 hours. After a mean follow-up of 150 days, 3 patients had died and 7 patients had retransplantations. In another study, patients were changed from cyclosporine to tacrolimus because of uncontrollable acute rejection, chronic rejection, or nonspecific hepatitis. Patients received a dosage of 0.15 mg/kg IV as a continuous infusion for 4—19 days, then 0.2—0.33 mg/kg/day PO in divided doses or oral therapy starting on day 4. Of the 18 patients with acute rejection, 11 had a complete response and 7 did not respond. Five patients developed a lymphoproliferative syndrome.

Tacrolimus has been widely studied for rescue therapy in patients who do not tolerate cyclosporine, have cyclosporine-refractory rejection, or chronic rejection. Tacrolimus dosages studied include 0.02—0.1 mg/kg/day IV, followed by 0.3 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses to maintain tacrolimus 12-hour whole blood trough levels of 1—2 ng/ml. In one study, 57 of 77 patients (74%) were successfully rescued with tacrolimus therapy and still had functioning allografts with a mean follow-up of 14 months. Renal transplant guidelines mention consideration of a switch from cyclosporine to tacrolimus for severe or steroid-resistant acute rejection, if applicable.

Numerous trials have studied the use of tacrolimus in patients receiving pancreas transplant alone, simultaneous pancreas/kidney transplant, and pancreas transplant after kidney transplant. These studies have shown that tacrolimus is effective both as part of primary immunosuppressive therapy and in patients who do not tolerate cyclosporine or develop refractory rejection. For rejection prophylaxis dosages of 4—10 mg/day PO in divided doses have been used to maintain tacrolimus whole blood concentrations at an average of 12 ng/ml. In patients who switched to tacrolimus for rejection or rescue therapy the median dose was 10 mg/day PO in divided doses with a median whole blood concentration of 11 ng/ml.

In seven patients, immunosuppression with daclizumab, sirolimus, and low-dose tacrolimus 1 mg PO twice daily was begun immediately prior to islet transplantation. The tacrolimus dose was adjusted to maintain a whole blood trough concentration at 12 hours of 3—6 ng/ml. No corticosteroids were used as immunosuppression. All patients remain free of the need for exogenous insulin and no episodes of acute rejection have been observed with median follow-up of 11.9 months.

Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus may reduce the severity of a rejection episode. For example, 14 of 15 patients who got oral tacrolimus rescue therapy (target 12-hour trough of 10—20 ng/ml) for grade 3A or higher refractory rejection converted from at least grade 3A to grade 2 or lower rejection.]

In one report, adults and children received tacrolimus 0.1—0.15 mg/kg/day IV, followed by 0.3 mg/kg/day PO in divided doses for either small-bowel, small-bowel and liver, or multivisceral transplantation. In a subsequent report of 15 patients who received tacrolimus 0.1—0.15 mg/kg/day IV, followed by 0.3 mg/kg/day PO in divided doses for small-bowel, with or without the colon, transplantation, actuarial patient survival rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 100%, 88%, and 70%, respectively. The overall incidence of rejection was 94%.

A dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day IV in 2 divided doses has been studied. The dose should be adjusted based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. The responsiveness of steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease to tacrolimus is marginal. Tacrolimus has also been used successfully in the treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease.

A dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day continuous IV infusion has been utilized.

Doses of 0.3 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, starting when the patient can tolerate oral medications have been given. The dose should be adjusted based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations.

See dosage for adults and adolescents. Children may require higher doses to maintain therapeutic whole blood trough concentrations of tacrolimus.

Doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day continuous IV infusion, starting 1—2 days prior to bone marrow transplantation (day -1 or -2) have been recommended. Beginning tacrolimus on day -2 may be of benefit in pediatric patients. The dose should be adjusted based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Usually given in combination with methotrexate.

Doses of 0.12 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses, starting when the patient is able to tolerate oral medications have been recommended. The dose should be adjusted based on tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations. Usually given in combination with methotrexate. Children may require higher doses to maintain therapeutic whole blood trough concentrations of tacrolimus.

A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial was conducted using daily exposure to nickel allergen as a model. Patients applied nickel patches to each arm for 4 to 8 hours daily, and were then randomly assigned to apply 0.1% tacrolimus ointment to the patch site of one arm and a vehicle to the patch site of the other arm twice daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, 45% of patients achieved clear or almost clear dermatitis with tacrolimus compared to 1% with vehicle; 31% of patients achieved success as early as day 8 with tacrolimus. There was no statistical difference in the occurrence of adverse events between the treatments. Adverse events occurred in 2% or fewer of the patients and were reported as application site reactions including edema, pruritus, erythema, pain, burning and bruising.

0.05 to 0.15 mg/kg/day PO tacrolimus (n = 27) was shown to be more effective than placebo (n = 23) in a small study. Patients with severe, recalcitrant, plaque-type psoriasis were given tacrolimus initially as 0.05 mg/kg/day PO and was increased to 0.1 mg/kg/day PO at week 3 and to 0.15 mg/kg/day PO at week 6 if necessary. By the end of the study at week 9, tacrolimus-treated patients had a significantly greater reduction in the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index than did placebo-treated patients (-83 vs. -47; p < 0.02).

Apply 0.1% tacrolimus ointment topically twice daily to psoriatic lesions of the face and intertriginous areas. In a clinical trial of 167 patients with facial and intertriginous psoriasis, a statistically significantly greater number of patients were clear or almost clear after 8 weeks of twice daily application of tacrolimus 0.1% ointment compared with vehicle (65% vs. 31%; p < 0.0001). Adverse events were similar between the 2 groups and were primarily reported as burning/stinging, hyperesthesia, and itching. In a clinical trial comparing tacrolimus ointment to calcitriol ointment in patients with intertriginous and facial psoriasis, tacrolimus produced a significantly greater reduction in mean target area score (67% vs. 51%; p < 0.05) with significantly more patients achieving clear or almost complete clearance by Physician’s Global Assessment (60% vs. 33%; p < 0.05).

In patients with refractory uveitis, a dose of 0.1—0.15 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses given for 12 weeks was effective in 60—83% of patients. Higher doses of 0.2 mg/kg/day PO have also been used; however, an increase in adverse effects has been reported with these dosages. A tacrolimus whole blood trough concentration of 15—25 ng/ml has been recommended.

In a pilot study, 7 patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome received a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day PO for at least 3 months. This dose was effective in decreasing proteinuria to 50% to normal protein levels. In the management of cyclosporine- and steroid- resistant nephrotic syndrome after renal transplantation, the use of tacrolimus may only be useful in a small group of patients (i.e., patients with de novo nephrotic syndrome following transplantation). Patients with chronic rejection should not be changed from cyclosporine to tacrolimus to treat post-transplantation nephrotic syndrome.

0.025 mg/kg PO twice daily initially, with dose titration to an optimal target tacrolimus serum trough level of 10 to 15 ng/mL, given for 2 weeks, has been used. Median dose at week 2 was 0.2 mg/kg/day (dose range 0.08 to 0.30 mg/kg/day), given in divided doses. Tacrolimus may be effective for short-term clinical improvement; guidelines do not routinely recommend use at this time due to the small numbers of patients studied and the lack of prospective long-term outcome data. Cyclosporine or infliximab are often recommended for rescue therapy. In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of adult patients with steroid-refractory UC, the clinical response rate at week 2 was 50% with tacrolimus vs. 13% with placebo (p = 0.003). Rates of mucosal healing were also superior with tacrolimus (44%) vs. placebo (13%); the rate of clinical remission observed was 9.4% (3/32) in the tacrolimus group and 0% in the placebo group (p = 0.238).

In a pilot study, 16 women with biopsy-proven lichen sclerosus were treated with twice daily applications of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment for three months; responders then received twice daily applications of 0.03% tacrolimus ointment. Sixty percent of patients reported a partial response, and two had a complete response. Further investigation is needed.

0.05 mg/kg/day PO in 2 divided doses titrated to achieve a trough of 5—10 ng/ml plus prednisone for induction led to a complete response in 22 of 42 patients. In contrast, 15 of 39 recipients of cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2 IV adjusted to 500—1000 mg/m2 every 4 weeks for a total of 6 doses plus prednisone met the endpoint. Data are limited by the small sample size and follow-up duration of 6 months. Tacrolimus is not a recommended induction agent, and consensus was not reached regarding the use of calcineurin inhibitors in patients whose nephritis fails to improve or worsens after 6 months of induction with cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, or both. Tacrolimus may be a consideration if nephritis is worsening in patients treated for 3 months with glucocorticoids plus either cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil.]

†Indicates off-label use

Maximum Dosage

Maximum dosage for systemic formulations is dependent on indication, route of therapy, and tacrolimus serum concentrations; 2 applications/day topically.

Maximum dosage for systemic formulations is dependent on indication, route of therapy, and tacrolimus serum concentrations; 2 applications/day topically.

Maximum dosage for systemic formulations is dependent on indication, route of therapy, and tacrolimus serum concentrations; 2 applications/day topically.

Maximum dosage for systemic formulations is dependent on indication, route of therapy, and tacrolimus serum concentrations; 2 applications/day topically.

Dosing Considerations

A lower dosage may be necessary in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C score greater than 10) due to reduced tacrolimus clearance and a prolonged half-life in these patients.

Consider starting at the lower end of the dosing range in patients who received a liver, lung, or heart transplant and have pre-existing renal impairment; further dosage reduction below the targeted range may be necessary. Consider dosage reductions in patients with elevated serum creatinine and tacrolimus whole blood trough concentrations greater than the recommended range. For immediate-release capsules, initiation of therapy may be delayed until renal function shows evidence of recovery after renal transplant.[28611]

Administration

Administer at approximately the same time each day.
Do not administer with grapefruit or grapefruit juice.
Immediate-release formulations (capsules and granules for oral suspension, administered twice daily), extended-release capsules (Astagraf XL; administered once daily), and extended-release tablets (Envarsus XR; administered once daily) are not interchangeable or substitutable.

Conventional immediate-release capsules
To minimize variations in bioavailability, administer consistently with or without food.

Extended-release capsules (Astagraf XL)
Take in the morning, preferably on an empty stomach at least 1 hour before a meal or at least 2 hours after a meal.
Swallow whole; do not chew, divide, or crush capsules.
Do not administer with an alcoholic beverage.
If a dose is missed up to 14 hours from the scheduled time, take the dose. If a dose is missed at more than 14 hours from the scheduled time, skip the dose and take the next dose at the regularly scheduled time.

Extended-release tablets (Envarsus XR)
Take in the morning, preferably on an empty stomach at least 1 hour before a meal or at least 2 hours after a meal.
Swallow whole; do not chew, divide, or crush tablets.
Do not administer with an alcoholic beverage.
If a dose is missed up to 15 hours from the scheduled time, take the dose. If a dose is missed at more than 15 hours from the scheduled time, skip the dose and take the next dose at the regularly scheduled time.

Granules for oral suspension
To minimize variations in bioavailability, administer consistently with or without food.
Use the minimum whole number of packets that corresponds to the required morning or evening dose. If the dose is not covered by the whole number of packets, use 1 additional 0.2 mg packet to round up the dose.
Do not use tubing, syringes, or other equipment (e.g., cups) containing PVC to prepare or administer tacrolimus.
Do not sprinkle the granules on food.
Wearing disposable gloves is recommended when preparing the oral suspension or when wiping spills. Avoid inhalation or direct contact with skin or mucous membranes. If contact occurs, wash the skin thoroughly with soap and water. If ocular contact occurs, rinse the eyes with water. Wipe the surface with a wet paper towel if a spill occurs; throw the paper towel away in the trash and wash your hands well.
To prepare the dose, empty the entire packet contents into a glass cup. Add 15 to 30 mL of room temperature drinking water and mix the entire contents of the cup. The granules will not completely dissolve. Give the suspension immediately after preparation. The suspension can be drawn up via a non-PVC oral syringe that is dispensed with the prescription. Rinse the cup or syringe with 15 to 30 mL of water and administer this to the patient to ensure all the medication is taken.

Extemporaneous compounding preparation†
A 0.5 mg/mL suspension can be made by mixing the contents of six 5-mg immediate-release tacrolimus capsules with equal amounts of Ora-Plus and Simple Syrup, NF to make a final volume of 60 mL. When stored at room temperature in either glass or plastic amber bottles, the suspension is stable for 56 days. Shake well before each use.

Visually inspect parenteral products for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration whenever solution and container permit.

Because of the risk of hypersensitivity reactions, IV administration should be reserved for patients who cannot take tacrolimus orally. Oral therapy should replace IV therapy as soon as possible.
Observe patients for 30 minutes after beginning the infusion and frequently thereafter for possible hypersensitivity reactions. Epinephrine and oxygen should be available at the bedside.
Due to chemical instability, tacrolimus should not be mixed or infused with solutions with a pH of 9 or more (e.g., acyclovir or ganciclovir).

Dilution
The concentrate for injection must be diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection or 5% Dextrose Injection to a final concentration between 0.004 mg/mL and 0.02 mg/mL.
ASHP Recommended Standard Concentrations for Pediatric Continuous Infusions: 0.02 mg/mL.
Prepare solutions in polyethylene or glass containers to allow storage for 24 hours. Do not use polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers because stability is decreased and the polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil in the formulation may leach phthalates from PVC containers.

Continuous IV Infusion
Administer through non-PVC tubing to minimize the potential for drug adsorption onto the tubing.
Infuse the required daily dose of the diluted IV solution over 24 hours.

Apply tacrolimus as a thin layer and rub in gently and completely. Before applying the ointment after a bath or shower, make sure the skin is completely dry.
Avoid the eyes and surrounding area.
Do not use with occlusive dressings. Use of occlusive dressings may promote systemic absorption.

Storage

ASTAGRAF XL:
– Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
ENVARSUS:
– Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F
HECORIA:
– Store at controlled room temperature (between 68 and 77 degrees F)
Prograf:
– Reconstituted product should be used immediately. Discard unused portion
– Store unreconstituted product at 68 to 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59 to 86 degrees F
Protopic:
– Store at 77 degrees F; excursions permitted to 59-86 degrees F

Contraindications / Precautions

Tacrolimus immediate-release formulations (capsules and granules for oral suspension, administered twice daily), extended-release capsules (Astagraf XL; administered once daily), and extended-release tablets (Envarsus XR; administered once daily) are not interchangeable or substitutable. Inadvertent or unintentional substitution between these formulations has resulted in serious adverse reactions including graft rejection. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended after conversion from 1 formulation to another.

Increased susceptibility to infection may occur with either systemic or topical use. Bacterial, viral, protozoal, and fungal infection occur commonly during immunosuppressive therapy and can be fatal. Serious viral infections reported include polyoma virus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) mostly due to BK virus infection, JC virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. CMV seronegative transplant patients who receive an organ from a CMV seropositive donor are at higher risk of developing CMV viremia and CMV disease. Reactivation of a latent viral infection, especially herpes infection, can occur with immunosuppressive therapy. Monitor for infection and adjust the immunosuppressive regimen to balance the risk of rejection with the risk of infection. Treatment with topical tacrolimus may be associated with an increased risk of varicella zoster (chickenpox or shingles) and herpes simplex infection. In the presence of these infections, the balance of risk and benefits associated with topical therapy should be evaluated. Patients should be instructed to report signs of infection promptly. Therapy requires an experienced clinician, specifically only clinicians experienced in immunosuppressant therapy and organ transplantation should use systemic tacrolimus, and the clinician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient. Administration of systemic tacrolimus requires a specialized care setting and should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical services.

Patients receiving immunosuppressants, such as oral or injectable tacrolimus, are at increased risk for the development of lymphomas and other malignancies, particularly of the skin. Risk of developing a malignancy appears to be related to the intensity and duration of immunosuppression rather than the specific immunosuppressive agent. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) has been reported in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients and has an association with the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). The risk of PTLD appears greatest in those patients who are EBV seronegative; a population that includes young pediatric patients. Monitor EBV serology during tacrolimus therapy. Also, immunosuppression from the use of topical tacrolimus may influence the possible development of a new primary malignancy, especially skin cancer, lymphoma, or other lymphoproliferative disorders; rare cases of malignancy (e.g., skin and lymphoma) have been reported, but a causal relationship has not been established. Some malignant conditions such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may mimic atopic dermatitis; avoid the use of topical tacrolimus on premalignant and malignant skin conditions. Discontinue Protopic in the presence of acute infectious mononucleosis, and do not use Protopic in patients who are immunocompromised. Avoid continuous long-term use of topical calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus ointment, and limit application to areas of involvement with atopic dermatitis. Only physicians experienced in immunosuppressant therapy and organ transplantation should use systemic tacrolimus, and the physician responsible for maintenance therapy should have complete information requisite for the follow-up of the patient. Patients initiating systemic tacrolimus therapy should be managed in facilities equipped and staffed with adequate laboratory and supportive medical services.[28611] [30973] [55401] [60497]

The extended-release tacrolimus formulation (Astagraf XL) is not indicated for use in liver transplant recipients due to an increased 12-month mortality rate in female patients who received Astagraf XL compared with immediate-release capsules (Prograf) in a randomized, clinical trial.

Tacrolimus ointment is not approved for use in neonates, infants, or children younger than 2 years old; only the lower concentration (tacrolimus 0.03%) ointment is recommended for use in non-immunocompromised pediatric patients aged 2 to 15 years. The long-term effect of tacrolimus on the developing immune system in infants and children is not known. Immediate-release capsules and granules for oral suspension are indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in pediatric kidney, liver, and heart transplant patients. In general, pediatric patients require higher tacrolimus doses compared to adults; these requirements may decrease as the child grows older. If pediatric patients are converted between immediate-release formulations, perform therapeutic drug monitoring and adjust the dosage as necessary to ensure adequate tacrolimus exposure is maintained. Astagraf XL is approved in pediatric patients 4 years of age and older. The safety and efficacy of Envarsus XR have not been established in patients less than 18 years of age.

Rare cases of acute renal failure have been reported in patients who received topical tacrolimus ointment; use the topical ointment cautiously in patients with renal impairment.[30973] Acute and chronic nephrotoxicity may occur with systemic tacrolimus therapy, especially at high doses. Monitor renal function and consider dosage reduction in patients with elevated serum creatinine (SCr) and tacrolimus whole blood concentrations greater than the recommended range. In kidney transplant recipients, treatment initiation may need to be delayed until there is evidence of renal function recovery.[28611] [55401] [60497] In liver and heart transplant recipients, consider starting at the lower end of the dosing range in patients who have pre-existing renal disease. In patients who develop renal failure while receiving tacrolimus, echocardiographic evaluation should be considered.[28611] Monitor patients with renal impairment closely; the tacrolimus dosage may need to be reduced in these patients. Consider switching to a different immunosuppressant therapy in patients who experience persistent SCr elevations despite a tacrolimus dose reduction.[28611] [55401] Acute nephrotoxicity is usually reversible and may be related to afferent renal arteriole vasoconstriction; signs and symptoms include increased SCr concentrations and oliguria. Chronic nephrotoxicity is often progressive; signs and symptoms include increased SCr concentrations, decreased graft function life, and histologic changes on renal biopsy. The risk of nephrotoxicity is increased with concomitant administration of CYP3A inhibitors (which increase tacrolimus concentrations) and drugs associated with nephrotoxicity (e.g., aminoglycosides, ganciclovir, amphotericin B, cisplatin, nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors); do not administer tacrolimus concomitantly with cyclosporine.[28611] [55401] [60497]

Hepatotoxicity has been reported with systemic tacrolimus therapy; use cautiously in patients with pre-existing hepatic disease. A lower dosage may be necessary for patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C score greater than 10) due to reduced tacrolimus clearance and a prolonged half-life in these patients. In patients with hepatitis C infection, the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus may be impacted by changes in liver function and clearance of the hepatitis C virus during direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Closely monitor trough concentrations in patients with hepatic impairment and in those with HCV receiving DAA therapy; adjust tacrolimus dose as needed.[28611] [55401] [60497] Liver transplant recipients with post-transplant severe hepatic impairment may have an increased risk of developing renal impairment related to high trough concentrations; consider lower doses in these patients.[28611]

Tacrolimus can cause hyperkalemia and hypertension. Monitor serum potassium levels during tacrolimus therapy. Use tacrolimus capsules, extended-release capsules, extended-release tablets, and injection with caution in patients with pre-existing hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy may be required, but cautious use of potassium-sparing diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers is warranted.

Tacrolimus may cause QT prolongation and torsade de pointes; avoid use in patients with congenital long QT syndrome. Tacrolimus-induced myocardial hypertrophy has been reported, therefore, use systemic tacrolimus cautiously in patients with pre-existing cardiomyopathy or other cardiac disease associated with left ventricular dysfunction (e.g., heart failure); additionally, heart failure and stress-related cardiomyopathy may increase the risk of QT prolongation. Consider obtaining electrocardiograms and monitoring electrolytes (i.e., magnesium, potassium, calcium) periodically during treatment for patients with congestive heart failure or bradyarrhythmias such as bradycardia. Use tacrolimus with caution in patients with conditions that may increase the risk of QT prolongation including bradycardia, AV block, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, or in patients receiving medications known to prolong the QT interval or cause electrolyte imbalances. Females, geriatric patients, patients with sleep deprivation, pheochromocytoma, sickle cell disease, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, hypothermia, systemic inflammation (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, fever, and some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and celiac disease) and patients undergoing apheresis procedures (e.g., plasmapheresis [plasma exchange], cytapheresis) may also be at increased risk for QT prolongation.[28432] [28457] [28611] [56592]

Tacrolimus may cause a variety of neurotoxicities including seizures. Symptoms may be associated with tacrolimus blood trough concentrations at or above the recommended range. Monitor concentrations closely in patients with a seizure disorder, especially in patients with concurrent renal or hepatic dysfunction. Consider dosage reduction or discontinuation if neurotoxicity occurs.

Insulin-dependent post-transplant diabetes mellitus has been reported in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients. Black patients and Hispanic patients post-renal transplant were at an increased risk of development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. The risk of development of post-transplant diabetes mellitus increased with increasing whole blood trough concentrations of tacrolimus and increasing doses of corticosteroids. Patients with pre-existing hyperglycemia may require alterations in hypoglycemic therapy. Also, Black kidney transplant patients may need a higher tacrolimus dose to attain comparable trough concentrations as compared with Caucasian patients. A formal study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic disposition of tacrolimus in Black transplant patients has not been conducted, but some data are available. For example, 30 days after renal transplantation, a tacrolimus dose of 0.17 mg/kg in Caucasians led to a trough of 12.8 ng/mL. In contrast, a trough of 12.9 ng/mL was obtained with a tacrolimus dose of 0.26 mg/kg in Black patients.

Tacrolimus is contraindicated for use by patients with a hypersensitivity to tacrolimus. The intravenous formulation of tacrolimus contains polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated castor oil and is contraindicated for use by patients with polyoxyethylated castor oil hypersensitivity because anaphylaxis can occur during intravenous administration of tacrolimus. Intravenous use is recommended only for those who cannot tolerate an oral formulation, and conversion is recommended as soon as oral therapy can be tolerated to minimize the risk of anaphylactic reactions. Constantly observe patients for at least the first 30 minutes after the start of the infusion and at frequent intervals thereafter. If signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis occur, stop the infusion immediately. Epinephrine and a source of oxygen should be immediately available.

Tacrolimus can cause fetal harm when administered during pregnancy. Human data suggest that infants exposed to tacrolimus in utero are at risk of prematurity, birth defects/congenital anomalies, low birth weight, and fetal distress. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to the fetus. The Transplantation Pregnancy Registry International (TPRI) is a voluntary pregnancy exposure registry that monitors outcomes of pregnancy in female transplant recipients and those fathered by male transplant recipients exposed to immunosuppressants; patients can register by contacting 1-877-955-6877 or www.transplantregistry.org. Tacrolimus may increase hyperglycemia in pregnant women with diabetes, including those with gestational diabetes. In addition, exacerbation of hypertension may increase the risk of pre-eclampsia. Monitor blood glucose concentrations and blood pressure regularly and treat as appropriate. Renal dysfunction, transient neonatal hyperkalemia, and low birth weight have been reported at the time of delivery in newborns of mothers taking tacrolimus. The experience with topical tacrolimus in pregnant women is too limited to permit assessment of the safety of its use during pregnancy. Tacrolimus should be used during pregnancy only when clearly needed.[28611] [30973][55401][60497]

Use tacrolimus with caution during breast-feeding. Controlled lactation studies have not been conducted in humans; however, tacrolimus has been reported to be present in human milk after systemic use. The effects of tacrolimus on the breastfed infant or milk production have not been assessed.[28611] [60497] Limited data indicate that the amount of tacrolimus excreted into breast-milk after systemic administration is low.[49424] [49425] In addition, no adverse reactions have been reported in nursing infants.[49426] The systemic absorption of tacrolimus after topical administration is minimal; 90% (1,253/1,391) of subjects in a pharmacokinetic trial with periodic blood sampling had blood concentrations of less than 2 ng/mL.[30973] Therefore, it is unlikely that a clinically significant exposure would occur via breast milk. Do not allow direct contact of the infant’s skin to treated areas and do not apply to the nipple area if nursing. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally administered drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

Counsel female and male patients of reproductive potential about the reproductive risk associated with tacrolimus and discuss family planning options including appropriate contraception prior to treatment initiation. Tacrolimus can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. Based on animal data, infertility may occur in male and female patients receiving tacrolimus. Encourage female transplant patients who become pregnant and male patients who have fathered a pregnancy to enroll in the voluntary Transplantation Pregnancy Registry International at 1-877-955-6877 or www.transplantpregnancyregistry.org.

When possible administer any needed immunizations prior to transplantation and initiation of tacrolimus therapy. Live vaccines (e.g., intranasal influenza, MMR, varicella) should not be administered during tacrolimus therapy. It is recommended that live, attenuated vaccines should not be given for at least 3 months after immunosuppressive therapy. Patients receiving any vaccination during tacrolimus therapy or in the 2 weeks prior to starting systemic therapy should be considered unimmunized and should be revaccinated at least 3 months after discontinuation of therapy. Passive immunoprophylaxis with immune globulins may be indicated for immunocompromised persons instead of or in addition to vaccination. When exposed to a vaccine-preventable disease such as measles, severely immunocompromised children should be considered susceptible regardless of their vaccination history.

Patients should minimize or avoid phototherapy or sunlight (UV) exposure (natural or artificial) during tacrolimus therapy. Patients receiving immunosuppressants are at increased risk of developing lymphomas or other malignancies, especially of the skin. Inform patients of the increased risk of cancer; advise them to limit exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet light by wearing protective clothing and using sunscreen with a high protection factor. Despite the absence of observed phototoxicity in humans, tacrolimus ointment shortened the time to skin tumor formation in an animal photocarcinogenicity study.

Tacrolimus ointment is for dermatologic use only. Avoid ocular exposure of tacrolimus ointment. Avoid use of any occlusive dressing. The safety of tacrolimus ointment has not been established with occlusive dressings, which may increase the systemic absorption of tacrolimus.

The safety of tacrolimus ointment has not been established for patients with generalized erythroderma, a widespread reddening of the skin often associated with exfoliative dermatitis. The use of tacrolimus ointment in those with ichthyosis, specifically Netherton’s syndrome (congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma), is not recommended due to the potential for increased systemic absorption of tacrolimus.

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) has been reported with tacrolimus therapy. Risk factors for PRCA include parvovirus B19 infection, underlying disease, or concomitant medications associated with PRCA. Consider discontinuation of tacrolimus in patients diagnosed with PRCA.

Adverse Reactions

hyperkalemia / Delayed / 0-45.0
pleural effusion / Delayed / 22.0-36.0
oliguria / Early / 0-19.0
renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / 0-15.0
renal tubular necrosis / Delayed / 0-15.0
anuria / Delayed / 0-15.0
seizures / Delayed / 0-15.0
atrial flutter / Early / 0-15.0
atrial fibrillation / Early / 0-15.0
pericardial effusion / Delayed / 15.0-15.0
thrombotic microangiopathy / Delayed / 0-15.0
hemolytic anemia / Delayed / 0-15.0
anasarca / Delayed / 0-15.0
pulmonary edema / Early / 0-15.0
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) / Early / 0-15.0
stroke / Early / 3.1-14.9
bradycardia / Rapid / 3.1-14.9
thrombosis / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
heart failure / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
GI perforation / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
GI bleeding / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
esophageal ulceration / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
ileus / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
coagulopathy / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
exfoliative dermatitis / Delayed / 0-14.9
pneumothorax / Early / 3.1-14.9
angioedema / Rapid / 1.0-2.0
cardiomyopathy / Delayed / 0-1.0
anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / 0-1.0
cardiac valvulopathy / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
nephrotoxicity / Delayed / 10.0
hemorrhagic cystitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
optic atrophy / Delayed / Incidence not known
hearing loss / Delayed / Incidence not known
leukoencephalopathy / Delayed / Incidence not known
ventricular fibrillation / Early / Incidence not known
torsade de pointes / Rapid / Incidence not known
arrhythmia exacerbation / Early / Incidence not known
cardiac arrest / Early / Incidence not known
myocardial infarction / Delayed / Incidence not known
pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
agranulocytosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) / Delayed / Incidence not known
hemolytic-uremic syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) / Delayed / Incidence not known
pancytopenia / Delayed / Incidence not known
red cell aplasia / Delayed / Incidence not known
toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) / Delayed / Incidence not known
anaphylactic shock / Rapid / Incidence not known
pulmonary hypertension / Delayed / Incidence not known
bronchiolitis obliterans / Delayed / Incidence not known
pulmonary embolism / Delayed / Incidence not known
rhabdomyolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
hepatic failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
cirrhosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
veno-occlusive disease (VOD) / Delayed / Incidence not known
hepatic necrosis / Delayed / Incidence not known
lymphoma / Delayed / Incidence not known
new primary malignancy / Delayed / Incidence not known
post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) / Delayed / Incidence not known

hypertension / Early / 0-89.0
diabetes mellitus / Delayed / 10.0-75.0
hypertriglyceridemia / Delayed / 65.0-65.0
anemia / Delayed / 0.2-65.0
hypercholesterolemia / Delayed / 0.2-57.0
hypophosphatemia / Delayed / 13.0-49.0
hypomagnesemia / Delayed / 12.0-48.0
leukopenia / Delayed / 13.0-48.0
hyperglycemia / Delayed / 11.0-47.0
constipation / Delayed / 0.2-40.0
elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 0-37.0
peripheral edema / Delayed / 0-36.0
hyperlipidemia / Delayed / 10.0-34.0
hypokalemia / Delayed / 0-29.0
dyspnea / Early / 0-29.0
erythema / Early / 9.0-28.0
ascites / Delayed / 7.0-27.0
thrombocytopenia / Delayed / 0-24.0
chest pain (unspecified) / Early / 0.2-19.0
edema / Delayed / 0.2-18.0
conjunctivitis / Delayed / 0-15.0
proteinuria / Delayed / 0-15.0
hyponatremia / Delayed / 0-15.0
hyperphosphatemia / Delayed / 0-15.0
depression / Delayed / 0-15.0
confusion / Early / 0-15.0
hallucinations / Early / 0-15.0
peripheral neuropathy / Delayed / 0-15.0
blurred vision / Early / 0-15.0
neurotoxicity / Early / 0-15.0
sinus tachycardia / Rapid / 0-15.0
metabolic acidosis / Delayed / 0-15.0
hyperuricemia / Delayed / 0-15.0
stomatitis / Delayed / 0-15.0
gastritis / Delayed / 0-15.0
esophagitis / Delayed / 0-15.0
neutropenia / Delayed / 0-15.0
impaired wound healing / Delayed / 0-15.0
osteopenia / Delayed / 0-15.0
osteoporosis / Delayed / 0-15.0
hepatitis / Delayed / 0-15.0
cholestasis / Delayed / 0-15.0
vaginitis / Delayed / 0-15.0
BK virus-associated nephropathy / Delayed / 0.7-14.9
pyuria / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
hematuria / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
urinary retention / Early / 3.1-14.9
cystitis / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
bladder spasm / Early / 3.1-14.9
dysuria / Early / 3.1-14.9
hypercalcemia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
hypocalcemia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
psychosis / Early / 3.1-14.9
encephalopathy / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
amnesia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
myoclonia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
amblyopia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
hypotension / Rapid / 3.1-14.9
phlebitis / Rapid / 3.1-14.9
peripheral vasodilation / Rapid / 0.2-14.9
angina / Early / 3.1-14.9
orthostatic hypotension / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
metabolic alkalosis / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
hypoglycemia / Early / 3.1-14.9
Cushing’s syndrome / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
hypervolemia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
dysphagia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
polycythemia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
skin ulcer / Delayed / 0.2-14.9
heat intolerance / Early / 3.1-14.9
dehydration / Delayed / 0.2-14.9
myasthenia / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
gout / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
hyperbilirubinemia / Delayed / 0.2-14.9
cholangitis / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
jaundice / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
hyperesthesia / Delayed / 0-7.0
migraine / Early / 0.2-0.9
cataracts / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
blepharitis / Early / 0.2-0.9
hypothyroidism / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
colitis / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
furunculosis / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
osteomyelitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
urinary incontinence / Early / Incidence not known
delirium / Early / Incidence not known
photophobia / Early / Incidence not known
aphasia / Delayed / Incidence not known
QT prolongation / Rapid / Incidence not known
supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) / Early / Incidence not known
glycosuria / Early / Incidence not known
immunosuppression / Delayed / Incidence not known

diarrhea / Early / 3.0-72.0
insomnia / Early / 1.0-64.0
headache / Early / 9.0-64.0
abdominal pain / Early / 0-59.0
tremor / Early / 15.0-56.0
asthenia / Delayed / 0-52.0
nausea / Early / 1.0-46.0
pruritus / Rapid / 0-46.0
fever / Early / 1.0-46.0
infection / Delayed / 1.0-45.0
paresthesias / Delayed / 0-40.0
anorexia / Delayed / 0-34.0
leukocytosis / Delayed / 0-32.0
cough / Delayed / 1.0-31.0
back pain / Delayed / 1.0-30.0
vomiting / Early / 1.0-29.0
dyspepsia / Early / 0-28.0
arthralgia / Delayed / 0-25.0
rash / Early / 0-24.0
dizziness / Early / 0-19.0
fatigue / Early / 16.0-16.0
anxiety / Delayed / 0-15.0
agitation / Early / 0-15.0
nightmares / Early / 0-15.0
hypoesthesia / Delayed / 0-15.0
tinnitus / Delayed / 0-15.0
flushing / Rapid / 0-15.0
Cushingoid features / Delayed / 0-15.0
gastroesophageal reflux / Delayed / 0-15.0
flatulence / Early / 0-15.0
acne vulgaris / Delayed / 0-15.0
hyperhidrosis / Delayed / 0-15.0
alopecia / Delayed / 0-15.0
pharyngitis / Delayed / 3.0-14.9
rhinitis / Early / 2.0-14.9
sinusitis / Delayed / 2.0-14.9
influenza / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
urinary urgency / Early / 3.1-14.9
nocturia / Early / 3.1-14.9
drowsiness / Early / 3.1-14.9
psychomotor impairment / Early / 3.1-14.9
abnormal dreams / Early / 3.1-14.9
emotional lability / Early / 3.1-14.9
inconsolable crying / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
syncope / Early / 0.2-14.9
vertigo / Early / 0.2-14.9
otalgia / Early / 0-14.9
weight gain / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
appetite stimulation / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
ecchymosis / Delayed / 0.2-14.9
diaphoresis / Early / 0.2-14.9
hirsutism / Delayed / 3.1-14.9
skin discoloration / Delayed / 0.2-14.9
photosensitivity / Delayed / 0.2-14.9
chills / Rapid / 0.2-14.9
hiccups / Early / 3.1-14.9
myalgia / Early / 0-14.9
folliculitis / Delayed / 2.0-6.0
urticaria / Rapid / 1.0-6.0
vesicular rash / Delayed / 1.0-4.0
dysmenorrhea / Delayed / 0-4.0
xerosis / Delayed / 1.0-3.0
maculopapular rash / Early / 0-2.0
laryngitis / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
xerophthalmia / Early / 0.2-0.9
ocular pain / Early / 0.2-0.9
dysgeusia / Early / 0.2-0.9
seborrhea / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
xerostomia / Early / 0.2-0.9
epistaxis / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
arthropathy / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
muscle cramps / Delayed / 0.2-0.9
weight loss / Delayed / Incidence not known
skin hyperpigmentation / Delayed / Incidence not known

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cbd oil for sleeping problems

Can CBD Help You Sleep?

A sleep psychologist says you should reconsider stocking up on CBD products for catching some zzz’s.

Cannabidiol (CBD) oil seems to be all over the place, used as treatment for anxiety, chronic pain, acne and even infused in some foods and drinks. It’s readily available in various doses and forms over-the-counter. It’s natural to wonder what this mystical compound of marijuana is and what it does in the body.

You might be thinking, “Wait, marijuana? Doesn’t that make you high?” But let’s set the record straight: unlike CBD’s counterpart delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD is a non-psychoactive compound, meaning it doesn’t alter your cognitive state.

Similar to THC though, CBD can help you relax and people are wondering if it will help them finally get some good shut eye.

“It’s a tricky question to answer,” says Deirdre Conroy, Ph.D. , clinical director of the Behavioral Sleep Medicine Clinic at Michigan Medicine. “There have been few studies on CBD and its effect on sleep, and those published have few participants with differing doses and forms of CBD administered.”

However, many of these studies suggest there could be some benefit to using CBD as a sleep aid, and it’s worth researching. “For example, there’s evidence that CBD can be helpful in managing anxiety . If someone’s anxiety is creating their sleeping problem, a CBD product may benefit them,” Conroy says.

But reaping the rewards of CBD is a slippery slope since much of its long term safety or efficacy is still unknown. One study showed taking less than 160 mg of CBD oil may actually promote wakefulness . While higher doses can promote sleep, the FDA has approved only one CBD product, a prescription drug to treat two rare, severe forms of epilepsy. Because other CBD products aren’t regulated, you might not know what you’re really getting.

“This compound is used in various forms and their doses may differ, so you might not know how much CBD you’re actually using,” Conroy says. Regular usage of high dose CBD could harm you before you become aware of it, according to the FDA. It can cause liver injury and affect how other drugs are metabolized, causing serious side effects. Similarly, when used with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants, the increased risk of sedation and drowsiness can lead to injuries.

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“Non-pharmacological interventions have long-term, long-standing data that proves their safety and efficacy,” Conroy says. “I know CBD oil for the treatment of sleep disorders is intriguing, but we’re looking for answers we just don’t have yet. The products are outpacing the science.”

Setting yourself up for sleep

Melatonin for sleep , like CBD, needs more research to unmask its benefits and harms. “We secrete melatonin naturally as our bodies prepare for bed,” Conroy says. “I believe in harnessing what you already have.”

Until we have more answers about CBD, there’s a plethora of behavioral strategies that promote better sleep, including:

Allowing yourself time to wind down before bed in a dark setting without bright screens. If you need to look at a screen, make sure you use a brightness filter.

Having outlets for managing stress and anxiety, like journaling or seeking professional help with a therapist if it’s more serious.

Training your body to follow a regular sleep and wake cycle if you don’t already have a routine.

If you’re having trouble sleeping on a regular basis, you may have an underlying sleep disorder that a sleep specialist could help diagnose and manage.

If sleep problems persist, Conroy recommends seeking help from a sleep medicine specialist. “We might recommend undergoing a sleep study or offer other therapies to improve your quality of life,” Conroy says. “This also opens dialogue between you and a medical professional about what kind of treatment option you’re looking for, what your sleep goals are and what your expectations from a sleep aid are.”

CBD oil for sleep: what you need to know

We speak to Dr Sarah Brewer about the benefits and potential risks factors associated with using cannabidiol for insomnia treatment.

If you suffer from insomnia or have trouble getting to sleep from time to time, you might be considering turning to CBD oil for help.

Cannabidoil, more commonly known as CBD, has been associated with a number of health benefits, including easing symptoms of anxiety, pain and stress. But is CBD oil an effective treatment for insomnia or will it keep you awake?

We speak to Healthspan Medical Director Dr Sarah Brewer about using CBD oil as a natural sleep remedy:

What causes insomnia?

Insomnia affects millions of people in the UK and is most commonly caused by stress, anxiety or depression.

Worry-related sleep problems have been on the rise during lockdown, with more than half of Britons saying they have experienced more disturbed sleep than usual.

Can CBD oil help to improve sleep?

While further scientific research is needed on this topic, preliminary studies have suggested CBD oil may be an effective natural remedy for insomnia sufferers, thanks to the way it interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system.

‘Cannabidiol (CBD) is a popular treatment for insomnia, and promotes refreshing REM sleep to reduced excessive daytime sleepiness,’ says Dr Brewer. ‘CBD is proven to be particularly helpful for sleep disorders in people with neurological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease.’

‘A review of preliminary research found that cannabidiol (CBD) may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of insomnia and may hold promise for REM sleep behaviour disorder,’ Dr Brewer adds.

How does CBD oil for sleep work?

While you might associate cannabis with feeling relaxed and sleepy, using CBD oil to treat sleep disorders is slightly more complex than simply making you feel drowsy. Ironically, CBD oil can make you feel more alert. So how does it work as a treatment for sleep disorders?

‘It is particularly helpful for people whose sleep problems are due to anxiety,’ explains Dr Brewer. ‘A recent review of 72 adults with anxiety or poor sleep found that anxiety scores decreased within the first month in 79.2 per cent and remained decreased during the study duration. Sleep scores also improved within the first month in 66.7 per cent and it was well tolerated.’

Similarly, one of the other major factors associated with insomnia is stress, but research has shown that CBD oil can improve your stress response, which can in turn help you to relax.

‘Anecdotally, ever since I started taking CBD at night I have enjoyed really deep sleep and also feel more relaxed,’ says Dr Brewer.